LIBYA Post-Gaddafi;9 Years Spiralling Civil War amid a Deadly Succession Power Struggle

Key Fact: Libya is Home to about 6.8 Million People and has Africa’s Largest Oil Reserves and 9th Globally

From the Nasty National Transition Council that was used by America, France, Britain, Canada and their NATO Allies with Authority from the UNSC to Criminally Topple and Kill Libya’s Revolutionary President Col. Gaddafi and Destroy Libya in 2011 Civil War, to its Successor the General National Congress, to its Successor the House of Representatives and its Rebel Status Quo Faction, to now the current Tripoli-based UN-brokered Government of National Accord-GNA that is facing its biggest Challenge from the Powerfully backed Tobruk-Benghazi-based Rival Government in Eastern Libya under a Rebel Libya National Army-LNA Faction; LIBYA is slowly teetering to a full blown Civil War if Swift, Responsive, Collective and most importantly NON-ALIGNED Redress Measures shall not be taken.

The LNA Rebel that has since April 2019 taken control over Two-thirds of Libya is being led by a 76-Years old Military Warlord, a US-Libya Renegade one Khalifa Haftar who returned to Libya in 2011 to join the UNSC-NATO backed Rebels in overthrowing his former Boss and Mentor President Muammar Gaddafi. The Tobruk-based House of Representatives appointed him to lead the LNA. The UN-backed Government that has been cornered in Tripoli Stronghold is being led by a 60-Years old Prime Minister Fayez Al-Sarraj;Its Rival Tobruk-based Government is being led by a 66-Years old Prime Minister Abdullah Al-Thani.

Impact of Libya’s Destruction in 2011

With Backing from UAE, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Russia, France, UK and US the LNA Militia has been on a Violent Military Offensive across Libya in a bid to overthrow the Tripoli-based Government-GNA. The beleaguered GNA is only receiving most of its Support from Turkey and some few other Nations like Italy and Qatar. The 10-Months Clash between these two Rival Forces has so far led to Deaths of over 1000 People with Scores left nursing Injuries, at least 150,000 People have Fled their Homes amid the heavy Gunfire, Airstrikes and Destruction. The December 12,2019 Haftar Order of a Final Decisive Battle to capture Tripoli has made an already tense situation worse.

Turkey via its President Erdogan being the greatest supporter of the besieged Tripoli-GNA Government invited Russia’s President Putin who supports Haftar to Negotiate a Ceasefire in Libya on January 8,2020 at Istanbul. The two gave a joint Statement calling for a Ceasefire which the two Warring Forces in Libya heeded as from January 11,2020. Both Turkey and Russia have huge Interests and Investments in Libya. The two later invited Al-Sarraj and Khalifa Haftar to Moscow for further Negotiations and to sign the Ceasefire Agreement. On January 14,2020 Haftar who had already started defying the Ceasefire had gone to Moscow with his UAE Advisors (UAE is his main Supporter) left without signing the Agreement which Sarraj had already signed. President Erdogan vowed to teach him a Lesson should he continue with his Offensive against GNA in Tripoli.

International Libya Peace Conference-Berlin

Another Peace Conference organized by the United Nations after several calls for the same by UN-Libya Envoy Ghassan Salame on the Libya Crisis happened on January 19,2020 in Berlin Germany. Speaking at a joint News Interview with President Putin in Moscow on January 11,2020 German Vice Chancellor Angela Merkel confirmed Berlin City as the Venue of this Conference saying the Goal of this International Libya Peace Conference is to give Libya a Chance to be a Sovereign Peaceful Country. She expressed hopes that the Peace Initiative started by Turkey and Russia will bear Fruits after the Berlin Conference.

Both Haftar and Sarraj attended this Conference but they did not meet face-to-face;German’s Foreign Affairs Minister Heiko Maas acted as their Intermediary.Heads of States/Countries around Libya’

‘s Conflict, UN Secretary General Antonio Guteres,European Union President Ursula Leyen, African Union Chair Moussa Faki,Arab League SG Aboul Gheit,US Secretary of States Mike Pompeo,AU High-level Committe on Libya Chair President Denis Nguesso alongside Presidents Putin, Erdogan, Macron,UK PM Boris Johnson,Elsisi,Tebboune were among the Dignitaries Present.

KEY RESOLUTIONS

  1. Strict adherence to the UN Arms and Troops Embargo on Libya
  2. Demobilization;Countries who have been providing Military Support to Rival warring Parties (Proxy War) to withdraw their Troops and Armament
  3. Drafting of a Permanent Ceasefire Agreement between the Warring Parties (LNA-GNA);Once ratified the Ceasefire shall be closely monitored,Truce Violators to be penalised by the UNSC
  4. Disarmament and De-escalation of Rival fighting Militias
  5. Start of a Political Non-Military Solution for Libya Crisis

WARLORD Khalifa Haftar and his Backers started violating this Berlin Call for Ceasefire immeadiately with Mortar Attacks on January 20,2020. His Militants have ever since been blatantly violating the January Ceasefires with heavy Bombardments,Gunfire,Shellings and Airstrikes mainly targeting Tripoli’s only functioning ‘Mitiga Internmational Airport’,several Residential areas,Trade and Business Centers as he continues with his Offensive to capture Tripoli and Topple Al-Sarraj’s Government.

His Bombardments have between January 12 to March 1,2020 claimed the Lives of at least 23 Civilians,over 2 Dozens left nursing Injuries with significant damage to both State and Private Infrastructure.It has also adversely affected the Life and Livelihoods of Tripoli Residents who now live in Panic and Fear amid sporadic Shellings.Oil;Libya’s main source of Income has also been adversely affected since January 18th when Haftar Militants blocked major Oil fields and Terminals leaving the recognized Government with meagre Resources to run the Country.

Speaking at the UN Human Rights Council on February 24,2020;PM Al-Sarraj decried the United Nations and International Community Failure to stop the ongoing armed Hostility and Violence in Libya.”Many have lost Lives,Families have been displaced,Children have been Orphaned because of the Aggression perpetrated by the War Criminal Khalifa Haftar”-he said at the Council meeting.Majority of Libyans and War Crisis Pundits also feel and say that the “United Nations Support Mission in Libya” that started operations on September 2011 has largely failed in its Mandate to restore Cohesion,Peace,Political-Leadership Order and Sanity in Libya.Its Boardroom Talks,Diplomacy,Statements,Calls,Condemnation,Warnings and Declarations amid unending Turmoil,Torment and Armed Hostilities is an Indictment to the Futility of its Mandate and Mission.

The February 28,2020 Missiles Bombardment near Mitiga Airport which happened amid another collapsed Geneva UN-sponsored Talks to solve Libya’s Crisis is the heaviest since January. Huge blasts and smoke caused Panic that saw the Airport operations halted temporarily.2 People were injured amid Evacuations.

RECENT EVENTS:

  • March 2,2020-“United Nations Support Mission in Libya”-UNSMIL Special Envoy Mr.Ghassan Salame Resigns on grounds of what he alluded to as a complicated and demanding Task that had started taking a toll on his Health.
  • June 5,2020-Humiliating Crush and Quelling of Libyan Warlord Khalifa Haftar’s 14-Months Offensive to Topple #Tripoli‘s UN-backed GNA Government.Haftar Forces Retreat to the strategic City of Sirte.
  • July 21,2020-Egypt’s Parliament approves the Deployment of #Egypt‘s Armed Forces to its War-torn Neighbour,Libya to ostensibly “defend Egypt’s National Security”.This came 6-Weeks after the Humiliating Defeat of Egypt’s Proxy;LNA Warlord #KhalifaHaftar by #Turkey and GNA Forces in the ongoing Civil War in #Libya.Warlord Khalifa Haftar who largely gets his Support from Egypt,#Russia,#UAE among other Foreign Actors like #France,#UK and #US saw his 14-Months Mission to Topple the UN-backed GNA Government in #Tripoli quelled on June 5,2020 by #Turkish Forces who are the main Backers of the GNA Government.Haftar’s Forces have since retreated to the Coastal City of #Sirte where they also control a Key Airbase-#Aljufra;a Key City where Libya’s main Oil/Gas Reserves and Export Terminals are Located;This is Libya’s ‘#OilCrescent‘.Turkey led by President #TayyipErdogan and GNA led by Prime Minister Al-Sarraj have vowed to further drive him out of Sirte and this is what Egypt’s President Gen.#AbdelfattahElsisi has been calling a Red Line which if passed he would face Turkey and GNA Forces directly;a Statement that GNA has termed as a “Declaration of War”.Sisi had called for Ceasefire and Talks between #GNA and #LNA upon Haftar’s Defeat.Haftar who had rejected all calls for Ceasefire during his Bombardments to Tripoli agreed to a Ceasefire and Talks but GNA under Prime Minister #AlSarraj with strong Support from Turkey has said he can only engage Haftar in Talks after taking over the strategic City of Sirte and Al-Jufra Airbase.
  • August 21,2020-LIBYA’s Rival Warring Government Factions;the #UnitedNations-backed GNA Government led by Prime Minister Fayez Al-Sarraj in #Tripoli and the #Tobruk-based LNA Junta led by Army Strongman Khalifa Haftar Announce a Ceasefire with Immediate Effect.In 2 Separate Statements Signed by PM #FayezAlSarraj and Tobruk Speaker of HOR Parliament #AguilaSaleh;Both Sides have directed their Forces to Stop all Hostilities,Combat and an End to Oil Blockades.The GNA called for Parliamentary and Presidential Elections by March 2021.PM Al- Sarraj says the Ultimate Aim of this New Truce is to have Full Sovereignty over Libyan Territory and the Departure of Foreign Forces and Mercenaries.While welcoming the Two Announcements;The UN Support Mission in Libya-#UNSMIL has called for the Expulsion of all Foreign War Mercenaries in the Proxy Civil War in #Libya.
  • August 23,2020-Gen.Al-Mismari;Haftar’s LNA Spokesperson dismisses GNA’s Call for a Ceasefire.With no reference to HOR Speaker Mr.Saleh’s Statement;Gen Al-Mismari said the “Initiative that Al-Sarraj signed is for Media Marketing;there is a Military build-up and transfer of Equipments to target our Forces in Sirte”.He said GNA’s Forces were advancing instead of retreating.
  • August 24th,25th,2020-Mass Protests rock Tripoli and Misrata.Protesting Libyans decry Corruption,Poor Living Conditions,Lack of essential Goods and Services like Fuel,Water and Electricity,Banking due to what they called Poor Governance.They demand to have the Long-delayed General Elections conducted.
  • September 13,2020-Protests reach the City of Benghazi,Al-Bayda and Sabha in Eastern Libya.Protesters set the LNA Government Headquarters on Fire.
  • September 14,2020-LNA’s Government Prime Minister Mr.Abdullah announces Resignation of his Government amid growing Protests.
  • September 16,2020-Libya’s UN-backed Government Leader PM Al-Sarraj announces his Decision to Resign by end of October 2020 and hand over to a New Government.He said the UN-led Negotiations have come to a “New Preparatory Phase” to Unify Libyan Institutions and Prepare the Country for Parliamentary and Presidential Elections.
  • September 18,2020-Warlord Khalifa Haftar announces Conditional Lifting of a 9-Months Oil Blockade.His LNA Forces 9-Months Blockade on Libya’s main Oil Fields and Terminals has seen Libya’s Oil-dependent Economy lose close to $10 Billion in Revenue.This has also been the cause of serious Fuel shortage and Electricity outage.”We have decided to resume Oil Production and Export on Condition of a Fair distribution of Revenues”-Haftar in a Press Statement.

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