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Post-Independence History

1884-Scramble for Africa; Germany occupies Togo and the Volta Region of Ghana together as its German Togoland Colony. German reigns for 3 Decades until 1914 when France and Britain Forces invade and overrun German Forces Capturing the Colony in the Run-up to the first World War. The Togoland Territory gets split into 2; British Togoland and French Togoland via the League of Nations 1922 Mandate.

Residents of British Togoland whose Territory was jointly Administered by British Gold Coast Authorities vote to join Gold Coast (Ghana) on May 1956 Referendum in the Run-up to Ghana’s Independence in 1957. French Togoland became an Autonomous Republic within the French Union by a Statute formalized by the October 1956 Referendum that was disputed by UN-General Assembly and some other local Political formations who accused France of manipulating the Process. Nicolas Grunitzky who was Pro-French Regime was Appointed as Prime Minister of this Colony still under France’s Authority.

A UN-supervised Universal Suffrage Parliamentary Election was held on April 1958 and Sylvanus Olympio a Key Togo Independence Activist won majority of Seats via his Committee of Togolese Unity-CUT Party making him a UN-recognized Prime Minister of the Territory still under French. His brother In-law Nicolas Grunitzky with his ?Togolese Party of Progress-PTP Allies lost in this Election. October 1958 France announced Intent to grant Togoland full Independence. April 27,1960 France grants Togoland full Independence and Prime Minister Sylvanus Olympio became the first Leader of now the Republic of Togo getting fully confirmed by Togolese People as Togo’s first President in Unopposed April 1961 Elections. A bitter Nicolas Grunitzky and his Anti-Olympio Allies started plotting against Olympio’s young Government; Olympio realized their Plans to unseat him and in a bid to Arrest them, Nicolas fled to France where he continued plotting Olympio’s Downfall.

Post-Independence History-Olympio?s Grand Vision For Togo Exterminated At Get-go

President Sylvanus Olympio who was an Economist by Profession steered the young Nation on an upward trajectory striving to end France’s Neocolonial controls over Togo a move that didn’t augur well with the Paris Regime under President De Gaulle who had managed to put all former France Colonies under an Economic, Cultural and Military Yoke via the fateful 1945 Pact for the continuation of Colonization that he made all France Colonies to sign into as a Pre-condition for Independence.

In 1962 President Olympio approved the formation of Togo’s Central Bank to create an Independent Togo Currency in a move that would see Togo stop using the France controlled CFA-Franc. This continued to worsen his Relations with the Paris Regime that responded with Intimidation by demanding the young Togo Government to pay France 800 Million Francs as Cost incurred by France’s Colonial Regime in developing Togoland (Colonial Debt) in order to let Togo make its own Currency. President Olympio mobilized the Resources of the young Nation and managed to raise this colossal amount for France but De Gaulle wouldn’t let Togo slip off Franafrique control.

In a larger Scheme to unseat Olympio; France brought back Togolese who were in French Colonial Army led by Sergeant Generals Bodjolle and Eyadema Gnassingbe and directed them to ask President Olympio to Reintegrate them in the Togo Army. Suspicious of their Motive President Olympio rejected their Request. With the help of Paris Regime, the Two Organized Mutiny to topple Olympio. On the Night of January 12,1963 when President Olympio was planning to leave to Paris to officially sign Togo out of the Neocolonial CFA-Franc Monetary Zone the Two led Armed Mutineers to attack and kill Olympio in his Official Residence but luckily President Olympio managed to flee to America/USA’s Ambassador to Togo Residence which was adjacent to his Residence.

The then France’s Ambassador to Togo Henri Mazoyer called America’s Ambassador the following day to enquire whether Olympio was hiding there. America’s Ambassador to Togo Leon Poullada had left the Residence but promised to confirm this once he arrives at the Residence. On his way back to the Residence Poullada met the Mutineers who were baying for Olympio’s Blood in the Streets. Upon arrival at the Residence Poullada saw the stranded Olympio at the Yard. He got into the House and after a series of Phone Calls between him and Mazoyer he came out and left the Residence leaving the terrified Olympio alone in the Residence.

Within a short while the Mutineers stormed the Residence and out came with Olympio. They shot him 3 Times outside Poullada’s Residence killing him in cold blood. General Eyadema Gnassingbe publicly bragged about having pulled the killer trigger on Togo’s Independence Activist and Founding Father on January 13,1963. Sylvanus Olympio became the first President of Independent Africa to be Assassinated.

President Nicolas Grunitzky Short-lived Military Puppet Reign

The Mutineers Coup Committee immediately announced Olympio’s Arch-rival Nicolas Grunitzky who was in Exile at Paris as Togo’s New President. Grunitzky ruled Togo for 4 Years until January 1967 when General Eyadema Gnassingbe who was part of the Committee that made him President toppled him out of Office. Grunitzky again fled back to Paris where he would later die in Hospital after a grisly Car Accident in 1969.

General Eyadema Gnassingbe-Togo?s Life President

Former Colonia French Army Sergeant General Eyadema Gnassingbe installed himself as President of Togo on April 1967. For a whopping 38-Years;Strongman General Eyadema who survived a couple of Coup Attempts reigned with an Autocratic hand wielding Absolute Power with a Cult of Personality. Although he is credited with starting Togo’s Phosphate Mining Industry that stabilized Togo’s Economy in 1970s,his Reign is mostly characterized by Corruption, Tribalism, Human Rights Abuse, Crashing, Arbitrary Arrest, Detention and Torture of Dissenters and Opposition, Extrajudicial Killings and the 1998 Massacre that saw Amnesty International Publish a damning Report titled Togo Rule of Terror on May 1999. In 1997 Eyadema reportedly spent over $2 Million from Togo’s troubled Economy to celebrate his 30-Years in Power. In 2002 Eyadema used Parliament to arbitrarily scrap out Presidential Term Limit in order to extend his Reign in 2003 Elections oblivious of his sudden Death thereafter. This would however work in favor of his Son who would be backed by the Military to illegally take over from him immediately.

Gnassingbe Junior-The Unending Dictatorial Dynasty

His Reign came to a sudden End after his sudden Death from Heart Attack on February 5,2005 at the Age of 70-Years. After his Death the Military immediately announced his then 39-Years old Son Faure Gnassingbe as his Successor against a Constitutional Dictate that would have seen the then Leader of Parliament Natchaba Outtara take over as an Acting President. The Parliament quickly convened the following day to make an Amendment to Rubber-stamp Faure’s Takeover. This saw widespread Protests in what Togolese said was a Military Coup.

A Presidential Election was conducted on April 2005 in a bid to calm the Protests and Faure Gnassingbe was announced Winner against 6 other Candidates in a disputed Election which Diplomats and Observers cited Intimidation and widespread Illegalities and Irregularities. The subsequent Post-Election Clashes claimed the Lives of close to 500 People, over 40,000 fled the Country amid Violent Confrontation between Protesters and Security Forces. A Government of National Unity negotiated at Burkina Faso on August 2006 calmed the Protests.

Another Presidential Election was held on March 2010; Faure under his Father’s ?Rally of Togolese People-RPT Party was again declared the Winner. The Opposition Protested Electoral Fraud but the Constitutional Court confirmed the Results and Faure was in for his Second Term. The next Presidential Elections were scheduled for April 2015 and Faure was all set to contest for a Third Term.

Prior to the 2015 Elections, Opposition Parties MPs presented a Bill in Parliament to Re-introduce Presidential Two-terms Limit that had been abolished by Faure’s Father President Eyadema in 2002 but the Bill was defeated by Faure’s Party that had Parliament Majority. They again tried to introduce Constitutional Reform Bill on November 2014 but they were defeated again. Consequently, they mobilized Togolese and took to the Streets in Protest against Faure’s imminent Third Term but their Protest was violently quelled by Security Forces.

The April 2015 Presidential Election went on and Faure was again declared Winner with 58% this time under his new Party Union for the Republic-UNIR Party. His key Rival since 2010 Jean Pierre Fabre came second with 38%. Fabre disputed the Results but didn’t file a Legal Complaint. The Constitutional Court validated the Results and Faure was sworn in for a Third Term on May 2015.

On May 2019, Faure’s Party cunningly introduced a Bill in Parliament capping Presidential Term Limit to Two-5 Year Terms without Retroactive Application meaning Faure can now comfortably vie for two fresh 5-Year Terms in 2020 and 2025 which now clears the way for him to extend his Family’s Regime in Togo up to 2030 where he and his Father shall by then have ruled Togo for a Record 63 Years consecutively!.This Machination was passed alongside yet another obnoxious Amendment that now guarantees all former Presidents Immunity and Impunity from Arrest, Detention and Prosecution for Acts committed during their Reign. There were a series of unsuccessful Street Protests to stop President Faure from running for a Fourth Term in this February Election.

TOGO February 22,2020 Presidential Election

  • There are slightly over 3.5 Million Registered Voters who on this particular Saturday shall cast their Votes in over 9000 Polling Stations across Togo’s 5 Administrative Regions
  • There are 7 Presidential Candidates led by 54-Yrs old incumbent President Faure Gnassingbe who shall be facing a disunited Opposition led by his main Challenger since 2010 68-Yrs old Jean-Pierre Fabre, Former Prime Minister 66-Yrs old Agbeyome Kodjo, 73-Yrs old Tchaboure Gogue, 53-Yrs old Georges Kuessan, 60-Yrs old Mohamed Traore and 56-Yrs old Komi Wolou
  • CENI the Electoral Commission shall announce the official Results with provisional Results expected Six days from the Election Day according to its Boss Chambakou Ayassor; The Results shall then be forwarded to the Constitutional Court for Validation
  • There are fears of a fraudulent Scheme after Reports that Mobile and Internet Services shall be disrupted on the Election Day; A key Independent Observer Group and Catholic Church Monitors have been barred from monitoring this Election

Quick Togo Fact-File

  • With a GDP Per Capita of $672 ranking at number 156/196 Countries in the World; Togo is still classified as one among the Least developed Countries and Low Income Economy/Countries . Over Half 55% of Togo’s 8.2 Million People live below the International Poverty Line of under $1.25 a day
  • Togo’s main Export include Phosphates, Cement, Sulphur, Rocks, Salt, Gold, Precious Metals and Crude Oil all in relatively small Production
  • Koutammakou; a Landscape in North Eastern Togo that is Home to Batammariba People and their striking Mud Tower-Houses known as Takienta is largely seen as Togo’s Symbol. This Region is actually a UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • Togo is Home to over 37 Ethnic Groups; the EWE, KABYE/KABRE and MINA are respectively the 3 Main Ethnic Groups in both Numbers and Influence
  • Togo’s official Language is French; EWE and KABRE are used as National Languages due to their large number of Speakers
  • 29% of Togolese are Christians, 20% are Muslims while 51% observe Indigenous African Beliefs
  • Lome is Togo’s Capital/Largest City
  • Togo alongside 8 other West Africa and Central African Countries still use the 75-Years old Neocolonial France-controlled CFA-Franc Currency that was imposed on all former France Colonies in the fateful 1945 Pact for Continuation of Colonization. There are plans to this Year  replace it with a New Currency ‘Eco’ that shall still be Pegged to Euro and Guaranteed by Paris Banque de France just like the CFA-Franc. This Agreement was announced by current France President Emmanuel Macron on December 2019 in what he said is a Plan to Rebuild France’s Relations with its former Colonies.


LIBYA Post-Gaddafi;9 Years Spiralling Civil War amid a Deadly Succession Power Struggle

Key Fact: Libya is Home to about 6.8 Million People and has Africa’s Largest Oil Reserves and 9th Globally

From the Nasty National Transition Council that was used by America, France, Britain, Canada and their NATO Allies with Authority from the UNSC to Criminally Topple and Kill Libya’s Revolutionary President Col. Gaddafi and Destroy Libya in 2011 Civil War to its Successor the General National Congress to its Successor the House of Representatives and its Rebel Status Quo Faction to now the current Tripoli-based UN-brokered Government of National Accord-GNA that is again on the brink of a Violent Collapse in the face of its Powerfully backed Benghazi-based Rival Government in Eastern Libya under a Rebel Libya National Army-LNA Faction; LIBYA is slowly teetering to a full blown Civil War if Swift, Responsive, Collective and most importantly NON-ALIGNED Redress Measures shall not be taken.

The LNA Rebel that has since April 2019 taken control over Two-thirds of Libya is being led by a 76-Years old Military Strongman, a US-Libya Renegade one Khalifa Haftar who returned to Libya in 2011 to join the UNSC-NATO backed Rebels in overthrowing his former Boss and Mentor President Muammar Gaddafi. The Tobruk-based House of Representatives appointed him to lead the LNA. The UN-backed Government that has been cornered in Tripoli Stronghold is being led by 59-Years old Prime Minister Fayez Al-Sarraj .

Impact of Libya’s Destruction in 2011

With Backing from UAE, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Russia, France, UK and US the LNA Militia has been on a Violent Military Offensive across Libya in a bid to overthrow the Tripoli-based Government-GNA. The beleaguered GNA is only receiving most of its Support from Turkey and some few other Nations like Italy and Qatar. The 10-Months Clash between these two Rival Forces has so far led to Deaths of over 1000 People with Scores left nursing Injuries, at least 150,000 People have Fled their Homes amid the heavy Gunfire, Airstrikes and Destruction. The December 12,2019 Haftar Order of a Final Decisive Battle to capture Tripoli has made an already tense situation worse.

Turkey via its President Erdogan being the greatest supporter of the besieged Tripoli-GNA Government invited Russia’s President Putin who supports Haftar to Negotiate a Ceasefire in Libya on January 8,2020 at Istanbul. The two gave a joint Statement calling for a Ceasefire which the two Warring Forces in Libya heeded as from January 11,2020. Both Turkey and Russia have huge Interests and Investments in Libya. The two later invited Al-Sarraj and Khalifa Haftar to Moscow for further Negotiations and to sign the Ceasefire Agreement. On January 14,2020 Haftar who had already started defying the Ceasefire had gone to Moscow with his UAE Advisors (UAE is his main Supporter) left without signing the Agreement which Sarraj had already signed. President Erdogan vowed to teach him a Lesson should he continue with his Offensive against GNA in Tripoli.

International Libya Peace Conference-Berlin

Another Peace Conference organized by the United Nations after several calls for the same by UN-Libya Envoy Ghassan Salame on the Libya Crisis happened on January 19,2020 in Berlin Germany. Speaking at a joint News Interview with President Putin in Moscow on January 11,2020 German Vice Chancellor Angela Merkel confirmed Berlin City as the Venue of this Conference saying the Goal of this International Libya Peace Conference is to give Libya a Chance to be a Sovereign Peaceful Country. She expressed hopes that the Peace Initiative started by Turkey and Russia will bear Fruits after the Berlin Conference.

Both Haftar and Sarraj attended this Conference but they did not meet face-to-face;German’s Foreign Affairs Minister Heiko Maas acted as their Intermediary.Heads of States/Countries around Libya’

‘s Conflict, UN Secretary General Antonio Guteres,European Union President Ursula Leyen, African Union Chair Moussa Faki,Arab League SG Aboul Gheit,US Secretary of States Mike Pompeo,AU High-level Committe on Libya Chair President Denis Nguesso alongside Presidents Putin, Erdogan, Macron,UK PM Boris Johnson,Elsisi,Tebboune were among the Dignitaries Present.


  1. Strict adherence to the UN Arms and Troops Embargo on Libya
  2. Demobilization;Countries who have been providing Military Support to Rival warring Parties (Proxy War) to withdraw their Troops and Armament
  3. Drafting of a Permanent Ceasefire Agreement between the Warring Parties (LNA-GNA);Once ratified the Ceasefire shall be closely monitored,Truce Violators to be penalised by the UNSC
  4. Disarmament and De-escalation of Rival fighting Militias
  5. Start of a Political Non-Military Solution for Libya Crisis

WARLORD Khalifa Haftar started violating this Berlin Call for Ceasefire immeadiately with Mortar Attacks on January 20,2020. His Militants have ever since been blatantly violating the January Ceasefires with heavy Bombardments,Gunfire,Shellings and Airstrikes mainly targeting Tripoli’s only functioning ‘Mitiga Internmational Airport’,several Residential areas,Trade and Business Centers as he continues with his Offensive to capture Tripoli and Topple Al-Sarraj’s Government.

His Bombardments have between January 12 to March 1,2020 claimed the Lives of at least 23 Civilians,over 2 Dozens left nursing Injuries with significant damage to both State and Private Infrastructure.It has also adversely affected the Life and Livelihoods of Tripoli Residents who now live in Panic and Fear amid sporadic Shellings.Oil;Libya’s main source of Income has also been adversely affected since January 18th when Haftar Militants blocked major Oil fields and Terminals leaving the recognized Government with meagre Resources to run the Country.

Speaking at the UN Human Rights Council on February 24,2020;PM Al-Sarraj decried the United Nations and International Community Failure to stop the ongoing armed Hostility and Violence in Libya.”Many have lost Lives,Families have been displaced,Children have been Orphaned because of the Aggression perpetrated by the War Criminal Khalifa Haftar”-he said at the Council meeting.

The February 28,2020 Missiles Bombardment near Mitiga Airport which happened amid another collapsed Geneva UN-sponsored Talks to solve Libya’s Crisis is the heaviest since January. Huge blasts and smoke caused Panic that saw the Airport operations halted temporarily.2 People were injured amid Evacuations.

MAJORITY of Libyans and War Crisis Pundits now say that the “United Nations Support Mission in Libya” that started operations on September 2011 has failed in its Mandate to restore Cohesion,Peace,Political-Leadership Order and Sanity in Libya.Its Boardroom Talks,Diplomacy,Statements,Calls,Condemnation,Warnings and Declarations amid unending Turmoil,Torment and Armed Hostilities is an Indictment to the Futility of its Mandate and Mission.The March 2,2020 Resignation of the Mission’s Special Envoy Mr Ghassan Salame on grounds of what he seemed to allude to as a complicated and insurmountable Task that was even taking a toll on his Health is again a more clear signal of a failed Mission.

(Photos Courtesy)


Pre-Independence History

1529- An Ottoman Turkish Admiral one Hayreddin Barbarosa invades and conquers the Hafsid and Zayyanid Berber Dynasties of Algeria capturing the Town of Algiers (Algeria’s Capital City Today) and establishes a new Ottoman Empire Province/Territory. The Ottoman Regency rules this new Province for Three Centuries until 1830 when the Kingdom of France then under King Charles X invades, conquer and capture Algeria from the Ottoman Regency.

France makes Algeria their Colony. The defeat of France Forces by German Forces in 1940’s World War 2 gives Algerian Nationalists Courage to start pushing against France for their Freedom and Independence; The Push gains momentum to become the ‘Algerian War for Independence’ by 1954. Algerian Nationalists led by Ahmed Ben Bella, Mohamed Boudiaf, Mostefa Boulaid, Larbi M’hidi, Rabah Bitat, Mourad Didouche, Hocine Ahmed, Krim Belkacem among others came together to form the ‘National Liberation Front’-FLN that on November 1954 began serious War for Independence backed by the newly Independent Egypt under President Gamal Abdel Nasser who had good relations with the FLN Leader Ahmed Ben Bella.

After a brutal 8-Years War for Independence that according to Algerian Sources led to the Killing of over One Million Algerians; Algeria secured its Freedom and Independence from France on July 5, 1962 ending 132 Years of French Rule. This was formalized by the signing of ‘Evian Accords’ between France and Algeria’s Provisional Government/FLN on March 18, 1962 and a subsequent Independence Referendum of July 1, 1962.

Post-Independence History

A Power struggle within the Provisional FLN Government saw the Army through its Chief Houari Boumedienne intervene backing the Revolutionary FLN Leader Ahmed Ben Bella who then became Algeria’s first President on September 15, 1963. The new FLN Government under President Ben Bella banned Political Opposition and made Algeria a One-Party State immediately after getting into Power.

The Relationship between Army Chief Boumedienne who was also serving as Ben Bella’s Defense Minister and his Boss President Bella started getting strained in Bella’s Second Year in Power. President Bella wanted to relegate the Army’s Influence in Power while Boumedienne wanted the Army to remain at the Center of Power. Suspicion between the two grew and in a bid to save himself from an imminent Sacking,Col. Boumedienne assisted by a Youthful Foreign Affairs Minister in Ben Bella’s Cabinet one Abdelaziz Bouteflika organized a Military Coup which they successfully executed on June 1965 overthrowing President Ben Bella.

Through a Military Council;Col. Boumedienne took Power on July 1965 and abolished the Country’s Constitution Order until 1976 when he introduced a new Constitution. A Presidential Election was organized on December 1976 in which Boumedienne was the only Candidate with FLN as the only Party which saw him Re-elected unopposed. Boumedienne remembered for his Industrialization Policies ruled until December 27,1978 when he died after being in a Coma for several Weeks.

Rabah Bitat a Freedom Fighter and FLN Founder Member who at the time of Boumedienne’s Death was the Majority Leader at Parliament was named as the Interim President a Position he held until February 1979 when Col. Chadli Bendjedid who was Boumedienne’s Defense Minister was appointed by the Military to succeed Boumedienne amid succession struggles.

Algeria’s Parliament removed ban on formation of new Political Parties complete with a Multi-Party Act of 1989 amid Economic Hardship and Inflation Protests. At least 22 New Parties were formed. The first Multi-Party Local Government Elections were held on June 1990. A newly formed controversial ‘Islamic Salvation Front’-FIS that wanted to make Algeria an Islamist State won with 55% against Independence/Ruling Party FLN 28%. In a subsequent General Parliamentary Election of December 1991 FIS gave the Ruling FLN a huge challenge winning an overwhelming Majority in Parliament. Upon realizing that FIS was on the Verge of massive Victory the Military Government intervened and annulled the entire Election banned FIS and arrested its Leaders. It also forced its Military Head of State Col. Bendjedid to dissolve Parliament and step down. A Military State Council HCS chaired by Mohamed Boudiaf also a former Freedom Fighter/FLN Founder Member took over Power.

This among other contentious Issues led to what is remembered as the ‘Algerian 10-Years Civil War’ pitting the Military Government and Armed Islamic Rebel Groups between December 1991-February 2002.

The HCS Military Head of State Mohamed Boudiaf was assassinated by one of his Bodyguards believed to be acting on orders from Islamic Rebels on June 29, 1992 while giving a TV Speech leaving the Country in Shock. Ali Kafi was named by the Military as the new HCS Chair/Acting President until January 1994 when the then Defense Minister Col. Liamine Zeroual was named to replace him. Col. Liamine would later be confirmed President through an Election held on November 1995 where he amid the Civil War Tension won against 3 other Candidates as an Independent Candidate.

In another Presidential Election of 1999 President Liamine said he would not be on the Ballot. He urged the Military and other State Officers to stay neutral. This Election had 7 Candidates all who withdrew from the Race 24-Hours to the Election leaving only one Candidate former Foreign Affairs Minister Abdelaziz Bouteflika who they said had Military backing and there were Schemes in place to rig him in. Incumbent President Col. Liamine dismissed their claims and the Election went on with Bouteflika winning unopposed to take Power on April 1999.

President Bouteflika brought in several Measures like the Law on Civil Concord, Negotiations with Islamic Rebels and Freeing of Jailed FIS Leaders among other Measures helped bring the 10-Years Algeria Civil War that according to Reports had claimed the Lives of over 100,000 People to an End.

A Presidential Election was held on April 2004 and Bouteflika under a new Party RND was Re-elected with a Landslide 85% against 5 other Candidates. Former Prime Minister Ali Benflis who was running under the Independence Party FLN came a distant Second with 6% in a Election that Observers said was fairly transparent.

President Bouteflika with Challenges of Insurgent Rebel Groups and Al-Qaeda Terrorism managed to see Algeria Economic Recovery and Stability post the 10-Years Civil War. Algeria’s Parliament unanimously (500/529) passed a Constitutional Amendment that abolished Presidential Two-term limit to allow Bouteflika to run for a Third Term in bid to allow him finish his Peace and Economic Recovery Mission.

Bouteflika was elected for a Third Term on April 2009 with a Landslide 90% against 5 other Candidates. Madam Louisa Hanoune who had made History as Algeria’s first Woman Presidential Candidate came second in this Election with 4% under her ‘Workers Party’. Bouteflika lifts a 19-Years State of Emergency on February 2011 in a bid to calm Protesters who were protesting Economic Hardships and Inflation.

April 2013 Bouteflika suffers a Stroke and goes to seek Treatment in France for 3-Months. The ailing President Bouteflika launches his bid for a Fourth Term a move that sparked ‘Barakat’ (Enough Now) Protests; Algerians demand his Retirement.  In a Presidential Election of April 2014 the ailing Bouteflika who had rarely campaigned won with 82% with backing from the Independence Party FLN in an Election that was boycotted by the Opposition who claimed the whole process was flawed. Former PM Ali Benflis who ran as an Independent Candidate came a distant Second with 12%.

Barakat Protests continued after this Election with Protesters demanding a new Political order.

2019 Algerian Uprising-End of Bouteflika Regime

#ALGERIA #ALGERIE #AlgeriaUprising #AlgeriaRevolution 2019 #Algerians #Algeriens 

Bouteflika’s troubles began on February 2019 when from a Wheelchair where a Stroke had confined him announced his bid to run for a Fifth Term. With the Country still reeling on Inflation, Unemployment, Corruption and State Repression; Thousands of Algerians of all Ages bombarded the Streets first demanding Bouteflika’s immediate Resignation. The Protest intensified in both Numbers and Demands with Protesters now demanding a Total Political and Government Makeover; the Resignation of all top Government Officers under Bouteflika and his Power Cabal (Le Pouvoir). They said Algeria’s Government and Governance System has since Independence been under the Influence of a Powerful Cabal led by the Military, Business Tycoons and a Selfish Elite; they demanded Total Exit/End of this Oligarch. Even the Military could not save Bouteflika; it also joined the People in calling for Bouteflika’s Resignation through its Chief General Ahmed Gaed Salah who said Bouteflika’s Illness had rendered him incapable of carrying out his duties as President.

In just 5 Weeks of Protest, the 82-years old ailing President Bouteflika on State TV announced his Resignation on the Night of April 2, 2019 Four Weeks to the official expiry of his Fourth Term bringing his 20-Years in Power to an Anticlimax.

The Chair of Parliament’s Upper House and Bouteflika’s Ally/Loyalist 78-years old Abdelkader Bensalah who had actually been representing the ailing Bouteflika in Public took over immediately per the Constitution as an Interim President of a Caretaker Government for 3 Months ahead of a fresh Presidential Election. This however did not calm the Protesting Algerians even as the Army through its Chief promised to fulfill all their Demands.

A Presidential Election scheduled for July 4, 2019 upon the due end of Abdelkader’s Interim Period was again postponed as no viable Candidate had presented their Candidature throwing the Country into a Constitutional Crisis amid escalating Mass Protests. 79-years old Army Chief Gaid Salah who was seen as the main Power Broker since Bouteflika’s toppling expressed support to Abdelkader to remain at the helm until a new Election Date is agreed upon. December 12, 2019 was finally set as the new Presidential Election Date after some Dialogue and Consultations in a bid to find a conclusive Solution to the unabated Protests. The Army has promised Fairness and Transparency in this Election saying it shall not support any Candidate.

Algeria’s Tense, Uncertain and Disputed December 12, 2019 Presidential Election

The ‘Algerian Independent Election Monitoring Authority’-NIEMA through its Chair Mohamed Chorfi has out of 23 People who had expressed their Interest cleared only 5 to compete in this Election. The 5 include two former Prime Ministers, 74-yrs old Abdelmadjid Tebboune and 75-yrs old Ali Benflis, it also includes two former Ministers, 60-yrs old former Culture Minister Azzedine Mihoubi and 57-yrs old former Tourism Minister Abdelkader Bengrine. The Fifth Candidate 56-yrs old Abdelaziz Belaid is the Leader of El Mostakbal Movement. 24.4 Million People are registered to Vote in this Election across Algeria’s 48 Provinces (Wilayas).

All the 5 Candidates have been strongly opposed and rejected by the Protesting Masses who are mainly Youths in their 20’s and early 30’s who have said the 5 are all part of the Power Cabal that they have been protesting to leave the Political Leadership Arena. They have vowed to boycott and disrupt this Election should it go on as currently constituted. They want this Election to be postponed for the Third Time until all Bouteflika-Era Faces including the Influential Army Chief leave the Stage for proper Institutional and Democratic Reforms. The Army maintains an Election is the only way to end this Deadlock.

Several Influential Politicians and Leaders in the former Regime of Bouteflika have been arrested, prosecuted and jailed for various offences; Notably Two former Prime Ministers Ahmed Ouyahia and Abdelmalek Sellal have been Jailed for Corruption. President Bouteflika’s younger Brother Said Bouteflika who was seen an influential figure behind Bouteflika and two former Intelligence Chiefs have also been sentenced to Jail by a Military Court for what the Court called a Scheme to undermine the Army and Plotting against the State. Many other former influential People are in Detention awaiting Trial in sweeping reforms to deal with Corruption, Economic Crimes and Saboteur which are some of the main reasons behind the ongoing 10-Months Streets Protest.

Algeria December 12,2019 Presidential Election Results

74-Yrs old former #Algeria Prime Minister and two times Minister Abdelmadjid Tebboune was declared the Winner of this Presidential Election with 58.15% on December 13 and Sworn in as Algeria’s New President on December 19, 2019.Coming
Second was former Minister Abdelkader Bengrina with 17.38% followed by former Prime Minister Ali Benflis with 10.55% followed by former Minister Azzedine Mihoubi with 7.26% with Abdelaziz Belaid coming last with 6.66%. 9.7 Million #Algeriens out 24 Million Registered Voters casted their Votes in this Election that was characterised by Mass Boycott and Anti-Election Protests in what the Protesters said was a Mockery of their 11-Months Streets Protest in Clamour for Change.Electoral Commission NIEMA said Voter Turnout stood at 39%.

Algeria’s unabated Hirak (People’s Uprising);Friday Protests continued even after this Election with Friday December 27,2019 marking the 45th consequtive Friday of Demonstration.The Protesters who rejected these Results saying they’re a Product of a Sham Process and a Mockery of their 11-Months Clamour for substantial Change have vowed to continue with their Protests until all their Demands are fully met;they have also rejected President Tebboune’s Call for Dialogue.The Protesters are also demanding the Release of all those who have been arrested,detained and convicted as a result of these Friday Protests.
This People’s Uprising that began on February intensified on April when it Toppled ailing President Bouteflika who was seeking a 5th Term.Tebboune like the other Candidates was part of Bouteflika’s Regime as a Minister and Prime Minister and had already been rejected by Protesting Algerians whose main Reason for Protest is against what they call ‘Powerful Cabal/Oligarchy’ led by the Military that has killed Democracy by imposing Leaders on them since Independence.Tebboune a Loyalist of the late Influential/Powerful Army Chief Gen.Gaid Salah who was seen as #Algerie ‘s De Facto Leader and main Power Broker since the Fall of Bouteflika until his sudden Death 5-days after Tebboune’s Inauguration as President took over from Abdelkader Bensalah who was the acting President since the Fall of Bouteflika.

Abdelmadjid Tebboune-Algeria’s New President

Algeria Fact File In Brief

  • Algeria located the Maghreb Region of Africa is the biggest Country in Africa and 10th in the World in terms of Land Area; It currently has an estimated Total Population of 42 Million People.
  • Only 12% of Algeria’s Land is inhabited which is in the Northern Part along the Mediterranean Coast where over 80% of Algerians live; Over 80% of Algeria which is the Southern Part is covered by Sahara Desert
  • #Algerians in the relatively small Arable Land grow Cereals mainly Oats, Wheat and Barley; Algeria is in fact the biggest producer of Oats in Africa and Home to the biggest Oat Market in Africa. It’s also one of the biggest grower/producer of Dates and Cherries in Africa.
  • Hydrocarbons mainly Oil and Gas are the Backbone of Algeria’s Economy with the two being the top Export Industries; Algeria is among Africa’s Top 3 Largest Producer and Reserve of Oil and Gas. Africa’s largest Oil Company Sonatrach is located in Algeria.
  • Algeria currently has a GDP of $178 Billion making it the 4th Biggest Economy in Africa; in terms of GNI Algeria is an upper middle-income Country. Algerian Dinar is the Country’s Currency.
  • Algeria’s official Languages are Arabic and the native Berber/Tamazight Language. Despite being a former Colony of France, French has no official status in Algeria although it’s one of the many other Languages spoken in Algeria.
  • Algeria is an Islam Country where close to 99% of Algerians are Muslims; Islam is in fact Algeria’s State Religion Constitutionally. There are very few Christians, Jews and other Faiths/Religions in Algeria.
  • Algeria is Home to 7 UNESCO World Heritage Sites which together with the extensive Sahara Desert are major Tourist attractions.
  • Algeria’s National Football Team ‘Les Fennecs’ named after ‘Algeria’s National Animal-the ‘Fennec Fox’ is the reigning Champion of Africa Cup of Nations-AFCON Football Title

(Photos Courtesy)


Pre-Independence History

1886- Germany annexes ‘South West Africa’ Territory (Today Namibia) after signing a Treaty with Portugal and Britain. An Uprising against German Occupation led by Herero and Nama People in this Territory leads to a deadly Clash with German Forces resorting to brute Force to suppress the Rebellion. A 4-Years bloody Confrontation between 1904-1908 leaves 80% of Herero People and 50% of Nama People Dead in what is Today remembered as ‘Herero-Nama Genocide’.

May 1915 shortly after World War 1 where Germany was the biggest Loser, the British Union Apartheid Government of South Africa begins Military onslaught against the German Regime in a bid to dethrone them and occupy this ‘South West African Territory’. Overwhelmed and Outnumbered the German Forces retreated and finally surrendered this Territory to South Africa on July 1915 after controlling it for 3-Decades. The league of Nations gave South Africa official Mandate to govern ‘South West Africa’.

Andimba Toivo Ya Toivo via ‘Ovamboland People’s Congress’ alongside Sam Nujoma, Jacob Kuhangua, Louis Nalengani, Emil Appolus and Lucas Haleinge founded ‘Ovamboland’s People’s Organization’-(OPO) on April 1959 as a Nationalist Organization to demand ‘South West Africa’s’ Independence from Apartheid South African Regime that had made this Territory One of its Provinces. Sam Nujoma was elected to lead this Organization after its first Congress.

Herero Chiefs Council led by Chief Hosea Kutako formed ‘South West African Union’-SWANU on September 1959 to act as an Umbrella Resistance Movement against South African Rule. Jariretundu Kazonguizi was elected to lead SWANU with support from OPO which had joined SWANU to unite for One Struggle for Independence.

After talks between Nujoma, Kazonguizi and a Herero Scholar Mburumba Kerina who were at the United Nations General Assemby in New York to Petition the United Nations to compel South Africa to grant ‘South West Africa’ Independence courtesy of Herero Chief’s Council; the Idea to transform OPO into a National Liberation Movement was agreed upon and on April 1960 OPO was transformed into ‘South West Africa People’s Organization’-SWAPO. Sam Nujoma was elected to lead SWAPO. The UN General Assembly of 1961 made a demand to the South Africa Regime to end its Control over ‘South West Africa’ but the high-handed Apartheid Regime could hear none of that.

In 1962 SWAPO founded its Military Wing (South West Africa Liberation Army) marking the beginning of what is Today referred to as ‘Namibian War and Struggle for Independence’ that went on all the way to 1989. The United Nations General Assembly again in 1968 made formal Recognition of SWAPO as the Sole Legitimate of ‘South West African People’; It also adopted Mburumba Kerina’s Proposal to rename ‘South West Africa’ to NAMIBIA as it’s known Today (derived from the Word NAMIB which means ‘a Vast Place’ in Nama Dialect.

With South Africa’s grip to Namibia growing weak under SWAPO’s unabated onslaught, Local and International Pressure to cede control over Namibia especially from the ‘Western Contact Group’ at the United Nations Security Council; a Ceasefire Agreement was announced on August 1988 at Geneva-UN Premises. This was further solidified by the December 1988 ‘Tripartite Accord’ between Angola, Cuba and South Africa on Troops Withdrawal. The UN sent a Peace Force to monitor the Agreement and oversee a Free Transparent Election towards Namibia’s Independence.

A Constituents Assembly Election was held on November 1989 and SWAPO through a successful Campaign led  by Current President Hage Geingob Won  41 Seats (57%) with its main Challenger DTA (Democratic Turnhalle Alliance) Winning 21 Seats to the Assembly in what became Namibia’s first Multi-Party Elections where a Record 10 Parties Contested. Hage Geingob a former UN Secretariat Political Affairs Officer and Member of SWAPO’s Central Committee was elected as the Chairman of this first Constituent Assembly which he lead in formulating and adopting Namibia’s Independence Constitution on February 1990. The Results of this Election saw Sam Nujoma unanimously declared as Namibia’s first President with Hage Geingob as his first Prime Minister prior to Full and Official Independence that was granted March 21,1990 the day when the then President of South Africa’s Apartheid  Regime F.W De Klerk accompanied by South Africa’s Independence Icon Nelson Mandela who had just been released from Prison and 20 other Heads of State witnessed Sam Nujoma and Hage Geingob Swearing in to respectively become the first President and Prime Minister of Independent Namibia.

Post-Independence Namibia

President Sam Nujoma ruled on; On December 1994 Namibia’s first Post-Independence Elections were held and SWAPO Won with a Landslide Victory with 53/72 Seats in Parliament. President Nujoma got his first Direct Mandate from the People Winning the Presidential Election with 76%; his only Competitor One Mishake Muyongo from the main Opposition Alliance DTA got 24% with his Party Winning 15-Seats.

A controversial Namibian Constitution Amendment courtesy of SWAPO’s Majority in Parliament was made on November 1998 to allow President Nujoma to contest for a Third 5-Years Term. Future Presidents after Nujoma would however remain restricted to Two Constitutional Terms. Namibia’s Second General Elections were held on November 1999 and Nujoma was again Re-elected with 76% this time against Three Competitors from DTA, COD and UDF Parties. SWAPO still managed to retain its Dominance with 55/72 Seats.

President Nujoma’s Party SWAPO through its then Secretary-general Hifikepunye Pohamba announced on November 2001 that President Nujoma had declared his Plan to step down at the end of his third Term in 2004. On September 2002 President Nujoma demoted his Prime Minister Geingob to a local Government Minister amid Succession Strife upon which Geingob decided to Resign from Government. On the General Elections of November 2004; President Nujoma’s chosen Successor One Hifikepunye Pohamba won the Presidential Election with striking 76% like his Predecessor against 7 other Candidates. His Party SWAPO  maintained its Dominance again Winning 55/ 72 Seats in Parliament.Namibia’s 4th General Elections were held on November 2009 and President Hifikepunye was Re-elected with 75% for his Second and Last Term with SWAPO Winning 54/72.

The 5th General Elections were held on November 2014 and the then SWAPO Vice President and President Pohamba’s Prime Minister Hage Geingob who he had Appointed on December 2012 was elected to Succeed him with a landslide Victory of 86% beating 8 other Candidates. SWAPO again maintained its Dominance in Parliament with 77/96 Seats against 15 other Parties.

Namibia’s November 27, 2019 General Elections

NAMIBIA’s 6th Post-Independence General Elections are set to be held on November 27, 2019. 78-Years Old President Hage Geingob will be seeking his Second and Last Term as President against 10 other Candidates who have been cleared by the Electoral Commission ECN to contest for the Top Job. Independence Party SWAPO in Power since 1990 will be seeking to maintain its Dominance in Parliament against 14 other Parties.

President Geingob’s Two Main Challengers according to Special Voting conducted on November 13th, general Perspectives and Projections are seen to be one 62-Years Old Panduleni Itula; a Member of SWAPO since 1970’s who has rebelled and is now running for the Top Seat as an Independent Candidate. Another Key Challenger is main Opposition Alliance ‘Popular Democratic Movement’-PDM (formerly DTA) Candidate 42-Years Old McHenry Venaani who recently received backing from ‘United People’s Movement-UPM in a bid to Challenge both President Geingob and SWAPO. There is only one Female Candidate who has become the first Woman to run for the Top Job in this Country; 57-Years Old former Social Worker Esther Muinjangue under NUDO-Party.

There are slightly over 1.3 Million Registered Voters who will be casting their Votes in 4241 Polling Stations across 121 Constituencies within Namibia’s 14 Regions.

Namibia November 27,2019 Election Results

INCUMBENT 78-Years Old President Hage Geingob was declared the WINNER of the 2019 Presidential Election with 464,703 Votes out of the Total 826,198 Valid Votes Casted which is 56.3% securing his Second and last 5-years Term as President. This is a sharp decline from 87% that he garnered in 2014 when he came to Power.
Independence/Ruling Party #SWAPO led the National Assembly Election with 63/96 Seats which is also a sharp decline from 77/96 Seats it Won in 2014;For the first time in Namibia’s History SWAPO lost its overwhelming Majority in Parliament. Main Opposition Party PDM managed to win 16 Seats up from the 5 it won in 2014. A new entrant the ‘Landless People’s Movement’-LPM managed to win 4 Seats. 8 other Parties that contested in this Election managed to win a Seat or Two. 4 other Parties in this Election did not win any Seat.
Voter Turnout stood at 60% which is also a sharp decline from 72% recorded in 2014.
Geingob’s closest Rival Panduleni Itula came a strong Second with 242,657 Votes or 29.4%. Main Opposition Candidate McHenry Venaani of the PDM came a distant Third with 43,959 Votes or 5.3%. Namibia’s first Female Candidate Esther Muinjangue of the NUDO managed 12,039 Votes to become Position 6 out of 11 Candidates.

Namibia Quick Fact-File

  • Namibia currently has an estimated Total Population of 2.5 Million People who according to World Bank ‘Income Inequality’ Report live in the Second Most Economically Unequal Country after their Neighbors South Africa. It means the Gap between the Rich and the Poor in Namibia is the Second highest in the World after that of South Africa.
  • Namibia’s estimated 15 Billion Dollars GDP is mainly built around Mining with Namibia being Africa’s biggest Producer of Uranium in Africa and 4th in the World. Diamonds, Gems, Copper,Precious Metals and Jewellery are also Mined in Namibia. Fishing and sale of Boats, Fishing and Floating Vessels is also a robust Indusrty in Namibia where ‘Namibian Dollar’-N$/NAD is the Country’s Currency
  • Namibia is Home to the World’s Oldest and most Ancient Desert; the Namib Desert which is estimated to be about 80 Million Years Old
  • Namibia’s Namib Desert has the World’s highest Sand Dune known as Dune 7 which towers at 383 Meters high
  • The November 2014 Namibia General Election which was done using ‘Electronic Voting Machines’-EVMs made Namibia the first African Country to conduct a General Election Electronically
  • Christianity is the main Religion with Namibia’s Official Language being English; a Local Language known as Oshiwambo by the Ovambo People is spoken by at least Half of Namibia’s Population
  • Namibia’s Capital City is known as Windhoek which means ‘Windy Corner’ in Afrikaans.

(Images Courtesy)


Pre-Independence History

1446: Portuguese arrive and occupy the Present-day Territory of Guinea-Bissau as part of their Cape Verde Territory; they started using this New Coast Territory as a Key Slave Trade Joint to a point of making it a Slave Coast where Locals and other Africans captured elsewhere were bundled in transit to Europe and America.

This Territory is later in 1879 separated from Cape Verde to become a separate Portuguese-Guinea Colony. In 1951 Portugal declared Guinea-Bissau as one of its Provinces just like Cape Verde as starts issuing Africans in the Two Colonies Portuguese Citizenship; this is the point at which the Agitation to Resist Portuguese Dominance and Assimilation began. The first African Nationalist Movement to emerge in Anti-Portuguese Colonization was the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) founded on September 1956 by a Renown Pan-African Revolutionary and Agronomist one Amilcar Cabral born in Guinea-Bissau to a Guinea-Bissau Father and a Cape Verde Mother. He founded this alongside other like-minded Nationalists like his Brother Luis Cabral, Aristides Pereira, Fernando Fortes, Julio Almeida, Elisee Turpin among others.

They began their pursuit for Independence in a peaceful style but the repressive Portuguese Colonial Regime responded with brute quelling Force, Violence and arbitrary arrests. Of note is the Pidjiguiti Massacre of August 1959 when Portuguese Forces opened Fire on Guineans employed at the Pidjiguiti Port in Bissau who were demonstrating because of Oppression and low Wages where over 50 were killed with many others left with serious injuries. This among other heinous Acts meted on Africans in both Guinea Bissau and Cape Verde made PAIGC to change tack to Armed Resistance marking the start of Guinea-Bissau’s War and Struggle for Independence.

With support from Cuba, USSR and China who helped PAIGC Freedom Fighters with Arms and Training making their Resistance strong for the Portuguese Forces. With the coordination between their fellow armed Comrades in Resistance from Mozambique and Angola under the Conference of Nationalist Organization of Portuguese Colonies their Resistance grew even stronger.

By 1967 PAIGC Freedom Fighters had managed to regain control in over Two-thirds of Guinea-Bissau with Portuguese Forces retreating to the Coastline. On October 1972 PAIGC held an indirect National Assembly Election that resulted to a Guinea-Bissau People’s Assembly and a Government Structure in their Stronghold in readiness for a full Takeover and Independence. Unfortunately on January 20, 1973 at Conakry in their Neighbouring Guinea where PAIGC had one of its Offices their Leader Amilcar Cabral was finally Assassinated by a PAIGC Guerilla identified as Inocencio Kani with Instructions and backing from the Portuguese Regime who had on several Occasions tried to Capture and Kill Amilcar Cabral in a bid to destabilize PAIGC and thereby stop their Push for Independence.

A Military Coup on April 1974 at Lisbon-Portugal overthrew the Autocratic Regime of Estado Novo and the New Government that took over started Negotiations to end the already weakened Portuguese Hold on African Colonies. This saw Portugal granting Independence to all its Colonies in Africa between September 1974 and November 1975 starting with Guinea-Bissau on September 24, 1974. A Year later on July 5, 1975 Cape Verde followed in Independence and the then leading PAIGC Members one Luis Cabral (Brother to the slain Amilcar Cabral) and Aristides Pereira became the first Presidents of Independent Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde respectively.

Post-Independence Guinea-Bissau

The Two immediately began Talks to merge their Newly Independent States that had a common History but unfortunately President Luis Cabral was overthrown in a November 1980 Military Coup led by a former PAIGC Guerilla and his Prime Minister one General Bernado Vieira. This killed the Unification Dream and marked the start of Guinea-Bissau’s Political Tribulations.

Bernado Vieira began his Reign via a Military Council until 1984 when a New Constitution was adopted amid growing Pressure for Multi-party Democracy led by Aristides Menezes via his Democratic Front among other similar Movements. The ban on Political Parties was lifted in 1991 ahead of a General Election of August 1994. The Elections saw President Vieira get a Democratic People’s Mandate with 52% of the Votes casted against Mr. Kumba Yala of the Social Renewal Party-PRS who got 47%. This was the first Post-Independence Multi-Party Election that saw 8 Candidates contesting for the Top Job in Guinea-Bissau.

On June 1998 President Vieira fired his Military Chief of Staff one Ansumane Mane a move that triggered a Violent Rebellion between Rival Forces in the Army. The Parliament on November 1998 passed a Motion demanding Vieira’s Resignation which further worsened the Situation to Civil War. President Vieira’s Forces were subdued by those of his Rival General Ansumane and Vieira fled to Portugal on June 1999.The Supreme Military Council named his former Prime Minister Satumino Da Costa was named the acting President of PAIGC and Parliament’s Leader Malam Sanha as the acting President ahead of the November 1999 Election to replace Vieira.

The then Leader of Opposition Kumba Lala of the PRS Party Won this Election and was sworn in as the new President on February 2000. General Ansumane Mane was on November 2000 Killed by Forces Loyal to President Kumba after bitter differences between the Two. Kumba’s Reign was still troubled by his strained relations with his Ministers, Political Instability, Stagnant Economy and Civil Unrest. He would later on September 2003 get Ousted in a Military Coup over what the Junta said was general Incapacity.

The Junta appointed a Civilian transitional Government led by Henrique Rosa as the Interim President and Artur Sanha as his Prime Minister in a bid to return the Country to Stability and Constitutional Order. The Two oversaw the March 2004 Legislative Elections and July 2005 Presidential Elections.

The July 2005 Presidential Elections saw two dramatic Appearances; Ousted President Kumba Lala returned to the Scene despite his ban from Politics and was cleared to run. Ousted President Bernado Vieira returned from Exile and was also cleared to run by the Supreme Court despite Charges levelled against him during the 1998/1999 Civil War that saw his Ouster. His former Party PAIGC that had already expelled him backed former Interim President Malam Sanha in this Election. Malam Sanha Won this Election with 35%, followed by Vieira with 28%, Kumba Lala came third with 25% meaning a Second Round for the Two Top Contenders. Kumba Lala backed Vieira in the Second Round and Vieira Won with 52% with his Rival Malam Sanha coming close Second with 47%.

Vieira got back to Power as President but this time round it would end disastrously for him. Attempts on his Life began on November 2008; suspecting Mutiny from his then Military Chief of Staff and his long-time bitter Rival General Batista Tagme, Forces loyal to him Killed General Batista on March 1, 2009. In Retaliation, disgruntled Forces loyal to General Batista killed him the following Morning on March 2, 2009 while trying to flee a Coup.

Raimundo Pereira the then Leader of Parliament immediately assumed the Office of the President as an Interim President according to the Constitution ahead of a Presidential Election in 90-days. A Presidential Election was held on June 2009 and former Interim President Malam Sanha under PAIGC defeated former Ousted President Kumba Lala with 63% to 36% in a Second-Round Vote.

President Sanha was Diabetic and his Health started deteriorating soon after ascending to Power. On January 9, 2012 while in Hospital at Paris President Sanha died. The then Leader of National Assembly and immediate-former Interim President Raimundo Pereira returned to Presidency again in Interim Capacity ahead of another Presidential Election in 90-days.

A Presidential Election was held on March 2012 and Carlos Gomes Junior Won with 48% followed by former Ousted President Kumba Lala with 23%. A Second-round Vote was set for late April but before this repeat  Presidential Election, Interim President Pereira was Ousted by the Military and Mamadu Kuruma the Chair of the Junta took over alongside Manuel Nhamadjo as the designate Interim President. The Junta also arrested Gomes Junior and Kumba Lala and cancelled the scheduled repeat Election between them. The Junta promised a Presidential Election in Two Years. On April-May 2014 a Presidential Election was held and Jose Mario Vaz under PAIGC was declared Winner with 62% against Junta-backed Nuno Gomes Nabiam who got 38% in a Second-round Vote. A few days to this Election, former Ousted President and PRS Party Founder/Leader Kumba Lala died of a Heart Disease.

An Economist and former Finace Minister in Jose Mario Vaz locally known as Jomav was sworn in as the New President on June 2014 promising reforms in the troubled Democracy/Economy.

November 24, 2019 Presidential Elections

A Presidential Election is set to be held on Sunday November 24, 2019 8 Months after the March Legislative/Parliamentary Elections that were Won by the Independence Party PAIGC. 62-Years old President Mario Vaz who is the first President to finish a Presidential Term since Guinea-Bissau’s Independence is in this Election seeking a Second Term as an Independent Candidate after falling out with PAIGC the Party that brought him to Power. The Party expelled him on August 2015 when he fired his then Prime Minister over what he called breach of Trust throwing the Parliament and the Government Systems into Chaos. He recently on October 29th again fired his Prime Minister Aristides Gomes  and Appointed a New one Faustino Fudut; Gomes refused to step down amid escalating Political and Electoral Unrest in the Country until ECOWAS intervened to stop President Vaz from effecting this Change. President Mario has been sacking his Prime Ministers from time to time since the day he took Office in 2014;He has so far worked with 7 Prime Ministers.

In this Election he will be competing with 11 other Candidates (all Male) led by his main challenger and former Prime Minister one 56-Years old Domingos Pereira who has the blessing of the Ruling Party PAIGC and two-times former Prime Minister 70-Years old Carlos Gomes Junior locally known as ‘Cadogo’ who recently returned from Exile in Portugal where he fled after the 2012 Military Coup. Carlos had won the first-round of March 2012 Presidential Election that was cancelled with a Military Coup thereafter. Other Candidates are another former Prime Minister to President Jose Mario who is also an Army General one 47-Years old Umaro Sissoco and 53-Years old Nuno Nabiam who came Second in the April 2014 Election.

There are slightly over 760,000 Registered Voters out of Guinea Bissau’s Total Population of 1.8 Million People who are expected to Vote in this Election across the 8 Regions of Guinea-Bissau.

November 24th Presidential Election Results

Two former Guinea-Bissau Prime Ministers managed to beat their former Boss President Jose Mario Vaz in the November 24th Presidential Election securing their place in a decisive Run-off Election between them scheduled for December 29th,2019.This is because none of the 12 Presidential Candidates managed to garner 50% of the Votes for a Clear-cut Victory in this first Round.56-yrs old Domingos Pereira under the Country’s Independence/Largest/Ruling Party #PAIGC led with 40% followed by 47-yrs old General Umaro Sissoco who got 28%.Incumbent President Jose MarioVaz who was seeking his Second Term in Office came a distant Fourth with 12% according to Electoral Commission CNE Chair Pedro Sambu. This first round was quite peaceful with a significantly high Voter turnout with Voters/Citizens expressing high hopes for a Rebirth of their Politically and Economically troubled Country.

The December 29,2019 Presidential Election Run-off saw Embalo turn tables on Pereira garnering 53% to Pereira’s 46% .Domingos Pereira rejected this Outcome saying the Election was marred by Fraud alleging that Votes surpassed the number of enrolled Voters at some Polling Stations.He lodged a Petition at the Supreme Court to have Embalo’s Victory Annulled but it was thrown out on January 12,2020.The Court said he should have first filed his Complaint with the Electoral commission which declared Embalo Winner with 53%.The Electoral Commission CNE dismissed Domingos claim of Electoral Fraud and Irregularities.This Court would later order the Electoral Commission to Recount the Votes after another Petition by Pereira.CNE complied and after the Recount it again confirmed Embalo’s Victory with 53% on February 25,2020.Embalo then went ahead to take Oath of Office as the New President of Guinea-Bissau in a Lowkey Evening Event on February 27,2020 at a Hotel in Bissau before the Confirmation of his Victory by the Supreme Court.The outgoing President Jose Mario Vaz attended this Oath Event which Domingos Pereira decried describing it as a Coup organised by the Duo to defeat Justice.

Some Major Issues and Facts In Guinea-Bissau

Guinea-Bissau continues to battle with Challenges of deep-seated Poverty, Corruption, Poor Governance, Incessant Political Instability and Turmoils and Drug Trade and Trafficking. Since Independence 45-Years ago Guinea-Bissau has seen 6 successful Military Coups and at least 15 thwarted Military Coups. Guinea-Bissau has also been made a Den of Drug Trafficking and Trade where well-connected Drug Lords from South and Latin America in Collusion with Corrupt Guinea-Bissau Authorities and Political Class who take advantage of Guinea-Bissau’s weak Security Apparatus, Porous Borders and Poor Law Enforcement Institutions to make the Country a Narcos-Transit Den for Drugs and Narcotics destined for Europe and other Parts of the World including Africa. Guinea-Bissau was in fact named as Africa’s Narcos-State by the United Nations in 2008.

In terms of Gross National Income which currently stands at $750, Gross Domestic Product currently at $1,429 Million and the number of People living below the Poverty line currently close to 70% of the Total Population; Guinea-Bissau is still among some of the Poorest Nations in Africa and Globally. Over 80% of the Population is dependent on Subsistence Agriculture with Food Insecurity and Malnutrition still a major Challenge according to the World Food Program.

Guinea-Bissau main Export is Nuts in form of Cashew Nuts, Coconuts, Peanuts, Brazil Nuts with Cashew Nuts being the Top Export and Foreign Exchange Earner. Fishing is also a significant Industry in this Country. There is also plenty of Timber in this Country. The Minerals Potential of this Country remains largely unexplored.

One Key Tourist attraction Site in Guinea-Bissau is the Bijagos Archipellago which is a group of 88 breath-taking tranquil Islands, Islets and Beaches off its Coast with Magical Ancient and Unadulterated Culture, People and Traditions, a rich Flora and Fauna Biodiversity that remained intact even in the face of Portuguese Colonization. The UNESCO in 2013 named Bijagos Archpelago as a World Heritage Site, a Sanctuary and Biosphere Reserve.

The Official Language here is Portuguese inherited from their Colonizer although Guinensi which is Portuguese Creole is widely used as the Country’s Lingua-Franca. About 45% of the Population are Muslims with 22% being Christians; the rest are Traditionalists. West African CFA Franc is their Currency. Bissau the Country’s Capital City is the biggest City in this Country; Its Name was added to the Country’s official Name Guinea-Bissau to differentiate it from its Neighbor Guinea-Conakry (former French Colony) which is also identified with its Capital City Conakry.

(Photos Courtesy)


Pre-Independence History

Botswana on the Map of Africa

BOTSWANA was known as BECHUANALAND during the British Rule between March 1885 up until September 1966 when it gained its Independence.

Sir Seretse Khama born in a powerful African Royal Family in Bechuanaland known as Bamangwato rose to be the King of Bamangwato at the Age of 4 with his Uncle as the Regent in 1925 when his Father Sekgoma 2 who was the King died. While schooling in London Khama married a White Lady known as Ruth Williams. This sparked Anger among his Bamangwato People with which the neighboring South Africa Apartheid Regime used to influenced his Ouster as King of Bamangwato in 1950 and his subsequent Exile in London.After a series of Protests by his People who refused to replace him; He Khama and his Wife Ruth were allowed to return to Bechuanaland as private Citizens in1956.

In November 1961 Khama made a comeback to the Political Scene with a New Party which he Named ‘Bechuanaland Democratic Party’ with which he alongside other Pro-Independence Nationalists used to further push for Independence. Being an organized idealistic Party; BDP won the 1965 Legislative Elections with a Landslide which saw Seretse Khama rise to become Bechuanaland’s Prime Minister with his Party Secretary-general Quett Masire as his Deputy.

With their Positions, the Two made the final Negotiation for Independence and on 30th September 1966 Bechuanaland was gained its Independence from the British Rule. It was upon this renamed as the Republic of Botswana with Seretse Khama as its first President and Quett Masire as his Vice President as per the 1965 Self-Government Constitution.

Post-Independence Botswana

January 1967 Diamond Rocks known as Kimberlite were discovered at Orapa Central Botswana by a British Diamond Exploration Company known as ‘De Beers’.

The first Multi-Party Democratic General Elections in Botswana were held on October 1969. 77 Candidates in 4 Political Parties contesting to Govern this budding Democracy. The reigning Independence Party that had been renamed to ‘Botswana Democratic Party’-BDP won this Election with a Landslide Victory winning 24/31 Elective Positions. Khama under Parliamentary Democracy was smoothly Re-elected back into Office by the National Assembly. BDP went on to win the 1974 and 1979 Elections with Landslide Victory giving Khama an easy way back to Office.

On 13th July 1980 President Seretse Khama who was 59-years old succumbed to Pancreatic Cancer while in Office. Quett Masire his Vice President immediately took over in acting capacity as per the Constitution; Five Days later Masire was confirmed as the new President in a National Assembly Vote of 18th July1980 with Festus Mogae, Peter Mmusi and Lenyeletse Seretse as his Deputies.

The BDP went on to win the 1984, 1989 and 1994 Elections with Landslide Victory giving President Quett Masire and easy hop from one Term to another. President Masire voluntarily resigned towards the end of his Third Term on April 1998 to engage in Diplomatic Initiatives leaving his Vice President Festus Mogae to take over ahead of the 1999 Elections. Quett Masire an esteemed Statesman and Diplomat died on 22nd June 2017 at the Age of 92-years. Again BDP won the 1999 Elections with a Landslide Victory and Festus Mogae was elected by the National Assembly as the new President. Mogae was Re-elected for his Second Term upon BDP’s Victory in the 2004 Elections.

18 Months to the end of his Second Term Festus Mogae who is now 80-years old  stepped down to allow for Transition leaving his Vice President Lt.Gen Ian Khama the Son of Botswana’s first President to steer the Country ahead of the 2009 Elections.

Again BDP won the 2009 Elections with a Landslide Victory and Ian Khama was confirmed as the new President. It went ahead to win the 2014 Elections this time losing the Popular Vote to the collective Opposition. It nonetheless maintained the National Assembly Majority thus securing President Ian Khama’s Second Term. President Ian who is now 66-Years old also stepped down on April 2018 a Year+ towards the end of his Second Term like his Predecessor to give time for Transition. He chose his 56-Years old Deputy Mokgweetsi Masisi to take over ahead of the October 2019 Elections.

Botswana October 2019 General Election

For the first time since 1969 when BDP took Power it is in this Election slated for 23rd October 2019 going to face a serious Challenge from the Opposition. With its Strongholds weakening since the 2014 Election; BDP is going into this Competitive High-stakes Election without its Significant Strongholds. Former President Ian Khama who still has Influence especially in Central Botswana broke ranks with his former Vice President and Successor President Mokgweetsi on April 2019 over bitter Policy and Ideology differences that have seen President Masisi overturn Key Policies of Ian’s Adminstration. Ian has as a result  quit and left BDP his Father’s Party that made him President and registered his own Breakaway Party known as ‘Botswana Patriotic Front’ on June 2019 which he is now seriously campaigning for alongside UDC (an Alliance of different Parties) which is the main Opposition in a bid to defeat the 50-years old BDP. He recently in a Campaign Rally went on record saying BDP is now a dead Party.

Six Political Parties will contest in this Election with Four of them fielding Presidential Candidates. President Mokgweetsi’s Long-ruling BDP Party is hoping to get confirmed by the Electorate, Mr. Duma Boko via UDC (Umbrella for Democratic Change) which is the main Opposition, Mr. Biggie Butale via the BPF (Botswana Democratic Front) and Mr. Ndaba Gaolathe via the AP (Alliance for Progressives). The Party that will win 29/57 Constituencies which is the Majority in the National Assembly will produce the 6th President of Botswana. Out of 1.6 Eligible Voters only 925,000 have been registered to vote in this Election.

The 4 Presidential Candidates in Botswana 2019 Election
L-R: Duma Boko, Biggie Butale, Incumbent President Mokgweetsi Masisi and Ndaba Gaolathe

Botswana Fact File

  • Botswana is the World’s largest producer and exporter of Diamonds in terms of Value. A recent discovery on April 2019 by a Canadian Diamond Mining Company in Botswana found a 1758 Carat-Diamond which is the Second largest Diamond to be discovered in History
  • Botswana is the Second most peaceful Country in Africa after Mauritius. It is the most Stable Democracy in Africa now flourishing with 50-years of Free and Fair Multi-Party Electoral Democracy often regarded as the epitome of Democracy
  • Despite being among Africa’s Top 25 biggest Countries in Area Size; Botswana is one of Africa’s most sparsely populated Countries now with a Total Population of 2.3 Million People. Kenya which is almost the same Size as Botswana has a Total Population of 50 Million People.
  • Botswana’s GDP currently stands at about 18 Billion U$D with Botswana Pula as the Country’s Currency
  • English is the Official Language while Setswana is the National Language with Christianity being the main Religion
  • Gaborone is the Capital City of Botswana.

Botswana’s Governing Party BDP;in Power since Independence in 1966 was again on October 26,2019 declared the Winner of this Election having Won 38/57 Seats in Parliament (66%) thereby guaranteeing President Mokgweetsi Masisi a smooth sail to a fresh Five-years Mandate. Coming Second was the Main Opposition Party UDC which managed to Win 15/57 Seats. The newly formed Opposition Party BPF Won 3 Seats with AP coming last with 1 Seat at the Country’s Parliament.

(Photos Courtesy)

MOZAMBIQUE; Independence,Rocky Political Journey and Lucrative Natural Gas Prospect

Mozambique Location on the African Map

Struggle for Independence

MOZAMBIQUE or MOCAMBIQUE in Portuguese was a Colony of Portugal since 1752 up until June 1975. Mozambique’s Struggle for Independence gained momentum on June 1962 when Three Mozambican Nationalist Organizations/Parties MANU, UDENAMO & UNAMI converged at Dar Es Salaam merged to form One Party in a bid to intensify the push for Independence. The ‘Mozambique Liberation Front’ famously known as FRELIMO was formed under the Tutelage of Tanzania’s Founding President Mwalimu Julius Nyerere who was their Host since the Portuguese State in Mozambique could not allow such to take place. Sir Eduardo Mondlane was elected as FRELIMO’s first President with Uria Simango as his Vice President. Together with Marcelino Dos Santos, Joaquim Chissano and Samora Machel and the Central Committee returned to Mozambique guided by the spirit of Marxism and demanded Political Independence from Portuguese, an End to Economic Exploitation by the Western Nations and the formation of an all-inclusive Socialist Society of Mozambique.

FRELIMO’s second Congress of July 1968 adopted Marxist-Socialist Policies with Mondlane and Simango being re-elected as Party Leaders. Mondlane would later be Assassinated 7-Months later on February 3, 1969 through a packaged Bomb sent to him as a Gift at FRELIMO Headquarters in Tanzania in what is believed to have been a Conspiracy of Portuguese Agents with the help of some FRELIMO insiders. Simango his deputy took over with assistance from Marcelino and Machel who later on November 1969 ousted him and took control. The duo Marcelino and Machel who had received Military Training intensified Guerilla War against the Portuguese. A Military Coup in Portugal on April 1974 overthrew the Autocratic Regime of Estado Novo. The New Regime in Portugal started Negotiations to terminate the draining Portuguese War in Africa.

Portugal and FRELIMO started Negotiations for Mozambique’s Independence which culminated in the Lusaka Accord of September 1974 that created a Transitional Mozambique Government ahead of Official Independence Proclamation that happened on the 25th Day of June 1975 which was the 13th Anniversary of FRELIMO.

Independent Mozambique

FRELIMO established a One-Party State with its then President Samora Machel becoming the first President of the Newly-Independent People’s Republic of Mozambique. Lourenco Marques is renamed Maputo after Maputo River to become the Capital City of Mozambique.

With the FRELIMO Government facing a huge demanding Task of lifting the New Republic from Poverty, Illiteracy and general Lack of Key Infrastructure and Capacity; a Counter-Revolutionary Movement RENAMO (Mozambique National Resistance) funded by Colonial Prime Minister of Rhodesia (Modern-day Zimbabwe) Ian Smith and the Apartheid South African Regime begins to directly Confront FRELIMO. The Confrontations intensified to become a Fully-fledged Civil War that plagued the Young Nation of Mozambique for 15-Years between (1977-1992) . Characterized by Marxist FRELIMO led by President Samora Machel against  the Rebellious Anti-Communist RENAMO led by Andre Matsangaissa ; This War led to the Deaths of over 1-Million Mozambicans with RENAMO’s Rebel Leader also Killed in the fighting by Government Forces on October 17,1979.

Amid the War; President Samora Machel together with 33 FRELIMO Comrades died in a Mysterious Plane Crash at Mbuzini Hills of Mpumalanga in South Africa on October 19,1986 in what is believed to have been plotted by South Africa’s Anti-FRELIMO Apartheid Regime that was then being led by P.W Botha. No One has been held to account up to this day. Two Weeks after Machel’s death FRELIMO Central Committee elected Samora Machel’s close ally and Minister of Foreign Affairs Joaquim Chissano to take over; Chissano was sworn in on November 1986.

President Chissano introduced drastic changes Key among them changing from Marxism to Capitalism and the start of Peace-Talks with RENAMO in an attempt to end the Civil War. Chissano announced direct Talks with RENAMO on March 1990 and the Negotiations began on July 1990 at Rome-Italy. The Negotiations started bearing Fruits on November 1990 when a New Constitution was enacted. The New Constitution ushered in Democracy and Multi-Party Politics and a Bill of Human Rights. The Talks went on for Two Years and the Leaders of the Two Warring Parties President Chissano and the then RENAMO Rebel Leader Afonso Dhlakama finally met on August1992. The Two signed the ‘General Peace Agreement’ on October 1992 with 7-Protocols in it key among them being  the Ceasefire that brought the 15-Years Civil War to an End.

The first Democratic Multi-Party General Elections were held on October 1994. FRELIMO’s Joaquim Chissano won with 53% followed by RENAMO’s Afonso Dhlakama with 33%. FRELIMO also Won the Majority in the National Assembly. The 2nd General Election was held on December 1999 and FRELIMO Won again.Chissano was re-elected with 52% with RENAMO’s Dhlakama coming a Strong-Second with 47%.RENAMO Protested and Contested this Election at the Supreme Court but their Petition was thrown out. The 3rd  General Election was held on December 2004.President Chissano was not on the Ballot like he had earlier promised to Step down while criticizing his Neighboring Counterparts President Chiluba of Zambia and Mugabe of Zimbabwe  for overstaying in Power. Again FRELIMO’s Candidate in this Election Armando Guebuza won with 63% followed by RENAMO’s Dhlakama with 31%. President Guebuza was again in the 4th General Elections of October 2009 Re-elected with a Landslide Victory of 75% with RENAM’Os obvious Candidate Dhlakama nose-diving with 16%.

The 5th General Election was held on October 2014 with a New FRELIMO Candidate Filipe Nyusi winning with 57% against RENAMO’s obvious Candidate Dhlakama who got 36% in his 5th Unsuccessful attempt to get the Top Job. RENAMO’s insurgency had began in 2013 but it was mildly stopped by a Cessation Accord between Outgoing President Guebuza and RENAMO’s Dhlakama. It intensified after the 2014 General Elections Results that were rejected by RENAMO who demanded Control of 6 out of 11 Provinces of Mozambique which it claimed to have won.

RENAMO’s Longtime Leader and FRELIMO’s Arch-Rival died on May 3,2018 Aged 65-Years in what was reported to have been a Heart Attack.He died in Gorongosa Mountains his Hideout. RENAMO chose Ossufo Momade who was its Secretary General between 2007-2012 as its interim Leader who it would later Confirm as its Presidential Flag-bearer on January 2019 at its National Congress ahead of the October 2019 General Elections. A Military faction within RENAMO led by General Mariano Nhongo rejected his Election claiming it was influenced by FRELIMO and that  Momade was FRELIMO’s Project in the oncoming Election.

On August 1, 2019 President Nyusi signed a New Peace Accord with Momade in a bid to end armed hostilities between Government Forces and RENAMO but RENAMO’s Junta led by Gen.Nhongo have refused to drop their Weapons. Nhongo who claims to Command over 500 Armed RENAMO Junta has vowed to totally disrupt the oncoming Elections if the Nyusi Government will not have negotiated with them directly saying they do not recognize the August Peace Treaty. The Junta heavily concentrated in the Northern Part of Mozambique that is Rich in Natural Gas has actually claimed responsibility on some Acts of Violence being witnessed in the Country in the ongoing Election Campaign Caravans. The Northern Part has been experiencing deadly Conflict Since the discovery of huge Natural Gas Deposits in 2010. Since the start of 2019 Election Campaigns at least 30 People including one Senior Election Observer identified as Mr.Matavel have been reported dead with little intervention from the Government. The Amnesty International has named Civil Society Leaders, Human Rights Activists and the Press as endangered groups in the looming Electoral Crisis.

Mozambique’s Historical Political Arch-Rival Parties To Date

MOZAMBIQUE October 15, 2019 General Election

Mozambique October 15,2019 General Elections

This 6th Multi-Party General Election will again largely be pitting Mozambique’s Independence Party FRELIMO that has been in Power for 44-Years Now against its familiar obvious Opposition Party RENAMO; The Two have been competing for 25-Years since 1994. President Filipe Nyusi will be seeking his 2nd and last Term in Office under FRELIMO; a Party whose Credibility and Influence is fast-waning against a disjointed RENAMO’s disputed Candidate Ossufo Momade. The other Two Presidential Candidates in this Election are Beira City Mayor since 2003 Daviz Simango of the MDM Party; an offshoot of RENAMO. Simango was a RENAMO Member from 1997 until March 2009 when he bolted out to form his own party the MDM (Democratic Movement of Mozambique). The other Presidential Candidate is Mario Albino with his AMUSI Party.

  • There are a Total of 26 Political Parties in this Election
  • 12.9 Million out of Mozambique’s 30.5 Million People have been Registered to Vote in this Election
  • There are over 20,000 Polling Stations spread out across the 11 Provinces of Mozambique
  • This will be the first Presidential Election without RENAMO’s Five-times Candidate the late Afonso Dhlakama who has been FRELIMO’s Arch-rival since 1994
  • Mozambique’s Independence Party FRELIMO that has been in Power since Mozambique’s Independence 44-Years is still the Front-runner in this Election
  • For the first time courtesy of the Maputo August 2019 Peace Accord; Provincial Governors will be directly Elected not Appointed by Executive Decrees
  • In Terms of GDP; Mozambique whose Economy is highly dependent on Agriculture is among the 10 Poorest Nations in Africa with a GDP of 14 Billion USD; This is expected to change for the better with the 2010 Discovery of over 75-Trillion Cubic Feet of Natural Gas in Mozambique’s Northern Coast of Cabo Delgado Province. This according to Italian and American Companies at the Center of this Discovery makes Mozambique one of the World’s Top Liquefied Natural Gas Hubs. Commercial Production and Export is set to start in 2024
  • The Country’s Official Currency is known as Mozambican  Metical while the Official Language is Portuguese (Inherited from the Colonial Master) although Native Languages like Swahili, Makhuwa, Sena and Ndau  are also widely Spoken
  • Mozambique’s Main Religion is Christianity although there is also a good number of Muslim Faithfuls

On October 27,2019 Mozambique’s Electoral Commission CNE declared incumbent President Filipe Nyusi of the Long-ruling Party FRELIMO as the Winner of this October 15th Election with 73% giving him a fresh Five-years Mandate.Main Opposition RENAMO’s Candidate Ossufo Momade garnered 21.88% of the Vote. In an Election that saw a Turnout of 50.74% the other Two Presidential Candidates MDM’s Daviz Simango garnered 4.38% with AMUSI’s Mario Albino garnering 0.73% of the Total Valid Votes. The main Opposition totally rejected the final Results of what they termed as the “most fraudulent Election ever” challenging it all the way to the Constitutional Council of the Supreme Court where their Petition was dismissed on November 15,2019. RENAMO said FRELIMO has again violated Mozambique’s Third ‘Peace Accord’ signed on August 2019 between FRELIMO Leader President Filipe Nyusi and Ossufo Momade the Leader of RENAMO by manipulating this Election with Violence, Intimidation and Massive Electoral Fraud thereby putting the Fragile Peace and Calm of this Country at Stake.


Tunisia on the African Map


TUNISIA; Home to the ancient City of Carthage (Found in Tunis the Capital City of Tunisia Today) is Africa’s Northernmost Country a former French Colony since May 1881 until its Independence on March 1956. Its Independence came after a series of Negotiations that begun in 1952 between France and Tunisian Freedom Fighters led by Habib Borguiba and other Nationalists under the Neo Destour Party. Habib was at the Time of Independence serving as the Second Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Tunisia under the French Protectorate.

A National Constituent Assembly formed on March 1956 to draft a Constitution for the New Republic of Tunisia elected Borguiba as its President on April 1956. The Neo Destour Party Leadership invited the Constituent Assembly Members for a Special Sitting on July 1957 and their Meeting officially Declared the Republic of Tunisia and Appointed Borguiba as the Acting President of the Republic of Tunisia a Position which was Legally Binded when Tunisia adopted its First Constitution on June 1959.

President Borguiba ruled the New Republic of Tunisia for 3 Decades until November 1987. Borguiba’s Health started ailing in early 1970’s and his Condition deteriorated in mid-1980’s when his Doctors declared him Mentally incapable of performing his duties. His New Prime Minister One General Ben Ali who he had just Appointed on October 1987 Ousted him from Office in a Bloodless Coup of November 1987 and took over immediately.

The New Military Head of State promised Reforms in Democracy and Governance but he never lived to the Promise. Although he introduced some Economic Reforms in Tunisia’s Economy,Ben Ali turned into a Dictator and ruled Tunisia for 24 Years until January 2011 when he was Ousted by Tunisians in Tunisian Revolution that began on December 2010 Ousting Ben Ali on January 2011. The Tunisian Revolution which began when a Jobless Graduate one Tarek Bouazizi who was working as a Vegetable Hawker immolated himself by dousing himself in Petrol and setting himself on Fire on December 17,2010 to Protest what many Tunisians felt epitomized Ben Ali’s Regime; Unemployment, Corruption, High Cost of Living, Oppression, Human Rights Abuse, Tyranny and Poor Governance. The Tunisian Revolution inspired what is now famously known as the Arab Spring where Arabs in Arab Countries in Africa and Middle East Revolted against Dictatorship deposing Long-serving Leaders notably Muammar Gaddafi of Libya, Egypt’s Hosni Mubarak sweeping Across Middle East Countries.

Ben Ali and his Family managed to flee and went to Exile in Jeddah Saudi Arabia where they have been offered Asylum and Refuge up to Date. Ben Ali Died on September 19,2019 at a Hospital in Jeddah at the Age of 83.

Before fleeing Ben Ali had delegated his Powers to his Prime Minister one Mohammed Ghannouchi a Decision that was quashed by Tunisia’s Constitutional Court. The Court subsequently announced the Legal Transition where the then Speaker of Parliament one Fouad Mebazaa took over as Interim President awaiting Presidential Election in 60 Days.

Fouad Mebazaa governed Tunisia as its 3rd President between January 2011 to December 2011 when the ‘Tunisian Constituent Assembly’ Constituted on October 2011 to draft a New Constitution and Appointed a Transitional Government after the Revolution.Former Human Rights Activist and Ben Ali’s Critic one Moncef Marzouki  was announced as the New Transitional President of Tunisia.

Marzouki governed Tunisia as its 4th President for Three Years between December 2011 to December 2014 when he lost to one of his Prime Minister one Beji Essebsi in Tunisia’s Historic First Ever Free and Fair Democratic Election of November-December 2014. President Marzouki is remembered for restoring Calm in Tunisia after the 2010 Revolution by lifting the State of Emergency and Instituting Tunisia’s Truth and Dignity Commission.

The then 88-Years Old Historic First Democratically Elected 5th President of Tunisia Beji Essebsi was Sworn in on December 31, 2014. Essebsi ruled Tunisia for 4 Years and 7 Months until July 25, 2019 when he died in Hospital at the Age of 92 in what his Office said was a Serious Illness. Before his Death President Essebsi had already Announced that would not seek Reelection in 2019 Presidential Election saying Time had come for the Youth to Lead Tunisia. Essebsi will be remembered for his Passion and Quest for Equality and Equity between Men and Women in Tunisia which he Championed through Legal Amendments and Parliament Debates.

The Speaker of the ‘Assembly of Representatives’ one Mohammed Ennaceur took over as the Interim 6th President awaiting Presidential Election set for September 15,2019. Tunisia is Administered through a Parliamentary System of Government.

Tunisia’s Second Democratic Election

The September 15, 2019 Presidential Election saw a whopping 26 Candidates contesting for Tunisia’s Highest Office in the Country’s Second Democratic Election. Among them are Key Prominent Figures led by the Country’s Current Prime Minister Youssef Chahed, Defence Minister Abdelkarim Zbidi, former Prime Ministers Mehdi Jomaa and Hamadi Jebali, former Tunisia Transitional President Moncef Marzouki, Media Tycoon Nabil Karoui who is currently in detention facing Money Laundering and Tax Evasion Charges, Ennahda’s Abdelfattah Morou and Abir Morsi who is among the only Two Female Candidates in the Race.

This Election which saw a Poor Voter Turnout where only 45% of the 7 Million Registered Voters turned out to Vote to the Surprise of many led to a Run-off Election that was held on October 13,2019 between Two New Entrants in Politics;One Independent Candidate 61-years old former Law Professor Kais Saied who led with 18.4% followed by 56-years old Media Tycoon Nabil Karoui who came Second with 15.6% . This was a huge blow to the Country’s Political Establishment.None of the 26 Candidates in this Race managed to get a Clear-cut Win (a Simple Majority above 50% of Total Valid Votes) in Round One Election hence the Two Top Contenders had to battle it out in a Decisive Run-off to determine the Winner who would then become Tunisia’s New President.Nabil Karoui who was in detention since late August was Freed from Jail on October 9,2019 by Tunisia’s High Court that annuled his detention Order.

This Run-off Election that saw Voter Turnout increase to 55% was Won by the modest 61-years old former Law Professor Kais Saied with a Landslide Victory of 72% against Nabil Karoui’s 27% .Mr.Nabil conceded defeat and congratulated the New President-elect Mr.Saied.

Mr.Saied largely seen as an Incorruptible social Conservative locally described as a “Robocop” for his Modesty Won the Hearts of Tunisians with an almost Zero-budget Campaign.His Anti-Political Elite approach helped him woo the Support of Tunisian Youths who Voted for him Massively.He thanked the Young People for turning a New Page and promised to build a New Tunisia for them and for all Tunisians.He pledged to Decentralise Power,Fight Corruption and fulfill the Aspirations of the 2011 Arab Revolution that began in Tunisia.

Mr.Kais Saied the New President of Tunisia

Tunisia’s 11.5 Million People who are 98% Arabs/Muslims are mainly dependent on Agriculture, Petroleum, Hydrocarbons and Metals Mining, Textiles, Tourism and Manufacturing as the main Economic Activities in the Country with Tunisian Dinar as the Country’s Currency.Tunisia’s GDP Currently stands at 40 Billion USD.

(Photos Courtesy)


I’m sure You have heard the phrases ‘Curse of Oil’ the ‘Dutch Disease’ or the ‘Resource Curse’. Basically this is the Paradox of plenty where naturally wealthiest Countries are usually the most destitute, oppressed and underdeveloped Home to some of the poorest and most depressed People on Earth. This is characteristic to

Oil is the Lifeblood of the World’s Economy

all naturally wealthy Nations especially in Africa and even across the World.

Oil in itself is historically quite a delicate and hotly contested Resource and Matter. Oil is the World’s largest and most important source of Energy; Essentially Oil is the Engine or rather the Lifeblood of the Global Economy. The World’s biggest Economies which also happen to be the most industrialized and powerful Nations primarily rely on Oil to run and manage their dynamic Economies which explains why they happen to be at the Center of every Single Oil Block and Oil Well across the World.

China which is currently the most industrialized Nation in the World produces 3.8 Million Barrels of Oil daily; In turn it consumes 13 Million Barrels of Oil daily. The U.S.A which is the World’s biggest Economy produces 13.1 Million Barrels of Oil daily; In turn it consumes 19 Million Barrels of Oil daily. Africa as a Whole produces 9 Million Barrels of Oil daily; In turn it only consumes 4 Million Barrels daily.

Note: 1 Barrel equals 159 Litres.

Before I introduce you to East Africa Oil breakthrough let us have a moment of Silence for the Republic of Venezuela which has the World’s largest Oil Reserve with a whopping 303 Billion Barrels of Proven Oil Reserve and the Republic of Libya which has the largest Oil Reserve in Africa with 48 Billion Barrels of Proven Oil Reserve.

The Relationship Between Oil,Peace and Prosperity

Libya is still embroiled in Civil War since 2011 with Venezuela now teetering to a Civil War. We must not forget the Oil War and Unrest experienced/being experienced in Iraq, Syria and Niger Delta in Nigeria. All these boil down to the Oil Question and Control happening under the guise of Political Power Struggle under the Machinations of Giant Foreign Capitalists and Imperialists.

The 1st of August 2019 Announcement by Kenya’s President Uhuru Kenyatta that Kenya has now joined the League of Oil exporting Countries in the World with an initial Consignment of 200,000 Barrels of Crude Oil Export valued at Ksh.1.2 Billion has elicited mixed reactions, responses, emotions and expectations across the Country as Kenyans seek and try to interpret, understand and make sense of what this News actually means. Discovery of Commercial Oil in any Country is usually expected to lower the means and cost of production which directly translates to low Cost of Living and improved Standards of Living to its Citizenry.

The discovery of Viable Oil in Kenya was made in 2012 making it the Second East African Nation with Proved Oil Resource after Uganda who discovered theirs in 2006 and South Sudan whose first Oil Block was discovered in 1978 long before its Independence from the main Sudan.

Impeccable Reports have it that Kenya has over 1 Billion Barrels of Proven Oil Reserve and 750 Million Barrels of Recoverable Oil or Commercially Viable Oil within Turkana area. The main developers in this Project being Britain’s Tullow Oil Company alongside France’s Total and Canada’s Oil Corp Companies who are currently extracting 2000 Barrels daily with Production Sharing Agreement remaining a Top Secret between Kenyan Government and the Developers as maintained by Petroleum and Mining Minister John Munyes until August 16,2019 when the Kenyan Government finally revealed its deal with a UK-based China Oil Refinery Company (ChemChina UK Limited) who bought the first Crude Oil Export Consignment flagged offf on August 26,2019 by President Kenyatta at the Port of Mombasa. Uganda on the other hand has 6.5 Billion Barrels of Proven Oil Reserve and 2.2 Billion Barrels of Recoverable/Commercially Viable Oil with its main developers being Britain’s Tullow Oil alongside China’s CNOOC, France’s Total and Italy’s Saipem SPA Companies. Uganda is yet to start extracting Commercial Oil due to Disagreements with developers over Taxation and Production sharing Agreement. South Sudan who have only explored 30% of their Total Oil Potential currently has 3.5 Billion Barrels of commercially Viable Oil. It’s currently producing 165,000 Barrels daily down from 350,000 Barrels that it used to produce shortly after its Independence in 2011-2012 before the Civil War/Unrest that broke out on December 2013. The main developers of Oil here are China, India, Malaysia with Russia and France also expressing their Interests.

The real Discord, Disarray and Disaster is in how these Three Oil Nations in East Africa do or intend to do with their Crude Oil in terms of Refinery, Value Addition and Value Proposition.

With East Africa’s Sole Oil Refinery Plant KPRL (Kenya Petroleum Refineries Limited) in Changamwe-Mombasa Kenya inoperative since 2013 with all efforts to Revive and Modernize it Vain; Kenya like South Sudan has started its Oil Business with exporting Oil in its Crude form.

Kenyan Government Officials seem to be reading from different Pages on the Issue of Oil Refining. On January 2018, the then Industrialization Minister Adan Mohamed said it makes more sense to build a new Oil Refinery than to revive and modernize KPRL which he termed as a very old Facility adding that Deliberations for a new Oil Refinery were on course. Just recently on February 2019 the Principal Secretary in the Ministry of Mining and Petroleum Andrew Kamau ruled out the possibility to construct a new local Oil Refinery saying such an expensive Capital-intensive Project would not make Economic Sense going with the current Crude Oil production capacity of 2000 Barrels daily not even in the expected daily Optimum of 80,000-100,000 Barrels.

The now defunct KPRL Refinery that has a daily capacity of refining 80,000 Barrels of Crude Oil is being used to store Crude Oil before Exportation. Its proposed Ksh.120 Billion revival and upgrade plan in 2013 was abandoned never to be reconsidered again even when Kenya acquired its full Ownership on June 2016. Kenya has since KPRL Closure in 2013 been purely relying on imported refined Petroleum Products and it seems this will be the case as its Oil Business starts in Crude Oil exportation.

Uganda on April 2018 signed a Deal with a Consortium of American and Italian Firms to construct a $4 Billion (Ksh.412 Billion) 60,000 Barrels ‘Hoima Crude Oil Refinery’ by 2023. It has in this invited its EAC Neighbors to buy Shares in this Refinery. Kenya and Tanzania have actually taken up Shares in this with Tanzania taking 8% and Kenya taking 2.5% .The rest have remained silent on this forcing Uganda to to take up the Shares it had offered them. France’s Total has consequently come into this taking up 10% with the majority 60% being left for other Foreign and Private Investors. Uganda intends to refine about 11,000 Barrels of Oil for its daily Domestic Use and Export the Excess.

At the declared Rate of Extraction Kenya and Uganda’s proven Oil Reserves are expected to take at least 55 Years to deplete.

South Sudan on the other hand continues to export all its Crude Oil to Sudan’s Khartoum

EAC Oil Nations-South Sudan,Uganda and Kenya.

Refinery before exporting it via Port Sudan. South Africa is in an advanced Process of signing an Agreement with the Government of South Sudan to construct a 60,000 Barrels daily Oil Refinery at a Cost of $1 Billion.

(Photos & Graphics Courtesy)



AFTER a long struggle to be recognized by FIFA as a Football Zone; Africa was finally recognized as a FIFA Zone in 1954 during a FIFA Congress held in Bern Switzerland. Later in another FIFA Congress at Lisbon Portugal in 1956; Africa’s Pioneer Representatives led by Egypt, Sudan and South Africa decided to form an African Football Confederation that would oversee Africa’s Inter-Nations Football Competition. A Constitutional Meeting between these Three Countries also attended by Ethiopia held on February 1957 at Khartoum Sudan founded the Confederation of African Football (CAF) and organized the Historic First ‘Africa Cup of Nations’ (AFCON) that kicked off on February 10, 1957 at Khartoum Sudan.

By then only Sudan and Egypt had gained their Independence in Africa, South Africa was still under the White Apartheid Regime, Ethiopia was never colonised. The newly formed CAF disqualified South Africa from this inaugural Tournament for defying CAF’s requirement to have a Multi-racial Team. This only left 3 Teams in Competition. Egypt won this inaugural AFCON 1st Edition Title after beating Ethiopia 4-0 in the Final Match.


  • 1959-2nd Edition held in Egypt where still the 3 Inaugural 1st Edition Teams participated. Egypt won their Second Title after beating Sudan 2-1


  • 1962-3rd Edition in Ethiopia where 6 more Teams joined the Competition to make a Total of 9. Ethiopia lifted its first Title after beating Egypt 4-2 on Extra Time
  • 1963-4th Edition in Ghana.6 Teams: Ghana lifted its first Title after beating Sudan 3-0
  • 1965-5th Edition in Tunisia.6 Teams; Ghana lifted its second Title after beating Hosts Tunisia 3-2
  • 1968-6th Edition in Ethioia.8 Teams: DR Congo lifted its first Title after beating Ghana 1-0
  • 1970-7th Edition in Sudan.8 Teams: Sudan lifted its first Title after beating Ghana 1-0. This was the first Televised AFCON Tournament
  • 1972-8th Edition in Cameroon.8 Teams; Congo-Brazzaville lifted its first Title after beating Mali 3-2
  • 1974-9th Edition in Egypt.8 Teams; DR Congo lifted its second Title after beating Zambia 2-0
  • 1976-10th Edition in Ethipia.8 Teams; Morocco lifted its first Title after beating Guinea with 5 Points to Guinea’s 4
  • 1978-11th Edition in Ghana.8 Teams; Ghana lifted its third Title after beating Uganda 2-0
  • 1980-12th Edition in Nigeria.8 Teams; The Host Nigeria lifted its first Title after beating Algeria 3-0
  • 1982-13th Edition in Libya.8 Teams; Ghana lifted its fourth Title after beating Hosts Libya on Penalty shoot-out
  • 1984-14th Edition in Ivory Coast.8 Teams; Cameroon lifted its first Title after beating Nigeria 3-1
  • 1986-15th Edition in Egypt.8 Teams; Egypt the Host lifted its third Title after beating Cameroon on Penalty shoot-out
  • 1988-16th Edition in Morocco.8 Teams; Cameroon lifted its second Title after beating Nigeria 1-0
  • 1990-17th Edition in Algeria.8 Teams; Host Algeria lifted its first Title after beating Nigeria 1-0
  • 1992-18th Edition in Senegal.4 more Teams joined the Competition to make a Total of 12; Ivory Coast won its first Title after beating Ghana on Penalty shoot-out
  • 1994-19th Edition in Tunisia.12 Teams; Nigeria lifted its second Title after beating Zambia 2-1
  • 1996-20th Edition in South Africa.4 more Teams joined the Competition to make a Total of 16; Host South Africa lifted its first Title after beating Tunisia 2-0
  • 1998-21st Edition in Burkina Faso.16 Teams; Egypt lifted its fourth Title after beating South Africa 2-0
  • 2000-22nd Edition jointly hosted by Ghana and Nigeria.16 Teams; Cameroon lifted its third Title after beating Nigeria on Penalty shoot-out
  • 2002-23rd Edition in Mali.16 Teams; Cameroon lifted its fourth Title after beating Senegal on Penalty shoot-out
  • 2004-24th Edition in Tunisia.16 Teams; Host Tunisia lifted its first Title after beating Morocco 2-1
  • 2006-25th Edition in Egypt.16 Teams; Host Egypt lifted its fifth Title after beating Ivory Coast on Penalty shoot-out
  • 2008-26th Edition in Ghana.16 Teams; Egypt lifted its sixth Title after beating Cameroon 1-o
  • 2010-27th Edition in Angola.16 Teams; Egypt lifted its seventh Title for a third time in a row after beating Ghana 1-0
  • 2012-28th Edition jointly hosted by Gabon and Equatorial Guinea.16 Teams; Zambia lifted its first Title after beating Ivory Coast on Penalty shoot-out
  • 2013-29th Edition in South Africa.16 Teams; Nigeria lifted its third Title after beating Burkina Faso 1-0
  • 2015-30th Edition in Equatorial Guinea.16 Teams; Ivory Coast lifted its second Title after beating Ghana on Penalty shoot-out
  • 2017-31st Edition in Gabon.16 Teams; Cameroon lifted its fifth Title after beating Egypt 2-1
  • 2019-32nd Edition in Egypt.24 Teams; Algeria lifted its Second AFCON Title after beating Senegal 1-0

The 32nd Edition of AFCON was held in Egypt from Friday June 21st to Friday July 19th 2019;Here are Key CAF Awards for the Year 2019 (as Announced by CAF on January 7,2020)

  1. African Player of the Year-Senegal’s Sadio Mane
  2. African Women’s Player of the Year-Asisat Oshoala-Nigeria’s ‘Super Falcons’
  3. Men’s African Coach of the Year-Algeria’s ‘Les Verts’ (AFCON Reigning Champions) Coach Djamel Belmadi
  4. Women’s African Coach of the Year-South Africa’s ‘Banyana Banyana’ Coach Disiree Ellis
  5. African Men’s National Team of the Year-Algeria’s ‘Les Verts’ (AFCON Reigning Champions)
  6. African Women’s National Team of the Year-Cameroon’s ‘Indomitable Lionesses’
  7. African Youth Player of the Year-Morocco’s 21-Yrs old Achraf Hakimi
  8. African Goal of the Year-Algeria’s Captain Riyad Mahrez 90th Minute Free-kick Goal at AFCON 2019 Semi-Finals against Nigeria that broke the 1-1 Draw sending Algeria to a Victorious Final.

CAF expanded participation from the usual 16 Teams since 1996 to 24 in a bid to make the Tournament more competitive. The 32nd Edition saw New Fist-timers like Madagascar, Burundi and Mauritania with Madagascar pulling a Surprise by going all the way to the Quarter Finals in their Debut to AFCON.

AFCON 2019 Group Fixtures

In 2013 CAF set the AFCON Year to always be on Odd Number Years after every two Years to avoid clashing with FIFA World Cup Year that falls on Even Years and also give African Teams ample time to prepare for the World Cup. CAF has also this year rescheduled the Months of AFCON from the usual January-February to June-July to avoid clashing with the European Leagues Calendar where a good number of African Players are involved.

AFCON Quick Facts

  1. Egypt is the Most Successful African Team in AFCON History with a Record of 7 Titles followed by Cameroon 5, Ghana with 4 and Nigeria with 3 Titles
  2. Egypt has made the highest number of appearances in AFCON now with a record of 24 followed by Ivory Coast at 23 and Ghana at 22
  3. Egypt has hosted AFCON for the highest number of times now at a record of 5 Times followed by Ghana at 4 Times
  4. For the Past Four Times Egypt has hosted AFCON Tournaments it has only lost once in the 1974 AFCON.
  5. Former Cameroonian Striker Samuel Etoo still holds the record of AFCON’s greatest scorer with a record of 18 Goals in his 6 appearances in AFCON. He has also won CAF’s ‘African Player of the Year’ Award for Four Times
  6. Former Ivory Coast Striker Laurent Pokou still holds the record of the highest number of Goals scored by one Man in One Match where he scored a record of 5 Goals for Ivory Coast in the 1970 AFCON against Ethiopia in the Group stages. He actually comes second to Samuel Etoo In the list of AFCON Top Scorers of all time
  7. Former Ivory Coast Captain Yaya Toure shocked Africa when he Won CAF’s ‘African Player of the Year Award’ for a record of Four Times in a row
  8. Former Egypt Goalkeeper Essam El Hadary won the now defunct CAF ‘Goalkeeper of the Year Award’ in 2001 and later in 2006,2008 and 2010 when he helped his National Team Egypt to lift the AFCON Title for 3 Times in a row
  9. Former Liberian Striker now the 25th President of Liberia Sir George Weah shocked the World when he bagged the 1995 CAF ‘African Player of the Year Award’, the Prestigious FIFA ‘World Player of the Year’ Award and the ‘Ballon D’or’. He is the only African Footballer to ever Win the latter 2 Awards to Date
  10. Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Seychelles, Somalia, Sao Tome and Principe, South Sudan, Djibouti, Eritrea, Eswatini, Lesotho and Gambia have NEVER QUALIFIED for AFCON since its Inception.

Photos Credit.