1899-A Supremacy War breaks out between the British Empire of Southern Africa and the Boers who who were controlling Two Colonies in Southern Africa. The British won and seized the Two Colonies (Transvaal and Orange Free State) from the Boers making them self-governing Colonies of their Empire. Their now Four (Cape,Natal,Transvaal & Orange Free Colonies) Separate Colonies United to form the ‘Union of South Africa’ under the British South Africa Act of 1909.
1912-The Native National Congress which would later become the African National Congress (ANC) was formed by Black South African Nationalists. Two Years later in 1914 the National Party (HNP in Afrikaans) was formed to advance the White Afrikaans Ideology, Dominance, Nationalism and Culture. Two other Parties were formed; the South African Communist Party in 1921 and the United Party in 1934.The United Party was the Governing Party until May 1948 General Elections when it lost to the National Party (HNP) due to its unclear Stand on Race Relations Policy. The National Party was unequivocally for the Minority White Supremacy to the detriment of the Majority Black South Africans. Upon assuming Power the National Party led by Prime Minister D.F Malan vowed to advance and implement a stringent Policy of Racial Segregation in all spheres of Governance and Life. This came in as a measure to counter the growing Majority Blacks Population Influence and ensure the Minority White Population control everything. The National Party named this Policy ‘Apartheid’ meaning ‘Apartness or Separation’ marking the Historical beginning of what would become 46 Years of the Infamous Apartheid Regime in South Africa.
The Apartheid Rule began with the Populations classified into Races complete with an Act to restrict every Race to a Particular Area with the Minority White Race being Supreme. The South African Communist Party was banned in 1950 prompting Nelson Mandela to start Civil Disobedience with his ANC Party. A breakaway Congress from the ANC also started Black People Demonstrations against Apartheid Policies which saw 70 of them Killed when they confronted Police at Sharpville on March 1960. This Mass Killings named as ‘Sharpville Massacre’ came as a Critical defining Moment in the Anti-Apartheid Struggle. The ANC was banned this very Year 1960.
The Apartheid Government organized a Referendum on whether the ‘Union of South Africa’ should become a Republic. In a Controversial Whites-Only Vote 52% approved this Proposal and on May 1961 the Republic of South Africa was born. Later in 1961 Nelson Mandela with a special ANC Force started a Sabotage Movement, Comrades from the Communist Party joined him and they named their now Strong Sabotage Movement against the Apartheid Government ‘Umkhonto We Sizwe’.
He Mandela was on August 1962 arrested and sent to Prison. Later on June 1964, Mandela and Seven of his Comrades in Resistance (Kathrada,Sisulu,Motsoaledi,Mlangeni,Govan Mbeki,Mhlaba and Goldberg) were in ‘Rivonia Trial’ Convicted for Life Imprisonment for Sabotaging the Government. The 7 were taken to Robben Island Prison. Goldberg who was the only White Person in this group was separated from them and Jailed separately at a Pretoria Prison.
In 1976 another Fierce Anti-Apartheid Government Education Policies Rebellion led by Youthful Black Students broke out in Soweto (Soweto Uprising) leading to Mass Savage Killing of over 700 Black Youths. This escalated into a National Anti-Apartheid Government Uprising making the Apartheid Ruler then P.W Botha to announce a State of Emergency in 1985. A General Election that for the first time allowed other Races to Vote was conducted in 1989 and FW De Klerk Succeeded PW Botha as the New Apartheid Government President, he lifted the Four-Years State of Emergency in 1990 and promised Reforms and Negotiations with the Black Majority Leaders and Activist who he freed upon meeting Mandela in Prison. He on February that same Year 1990 released Mandela after 27 Years in Prison. He also lifted the ban on the ANC and Mandela was elected its New Chair in 1991.
This marked a turning point in South Africa’s History as Negotiations to end Apartheid Rule began in earnest between ANC Leader Nelson Mandela and President De Klerk leading to a New Interim Constitution for an All-Race Democracy in 1993 which earned the Two 1993’s Nobel Peace Prize.South Africa Regained its Independence from Apartheid Colonial Rule.
The First Historic All-Races Election was conducted on April 1994 which ANC won, thereafter the Parliament Appointed Nelson Mandela to be the First Black President of Post-Apartheid Republic of South Africa. Nelson Mandela formed a Unitary Government with De Klerk and Thabo Mbeki as his first Deputy Presidents as per the Interim Constitution. A New Fully-fledged Democratic All-Races Constitution was adopted on May 1996. De Klerk later resigned from Politics on June 1996.
ANC won the General Elections of 1999 and Thabo Mbeki was Appointed to Succeed President Mandela on June 1999. Despite having all the support to go for a Second Term as President which was Open to him per the 1996 Constitution, Nelson Mandela decided to Voluntarily Retire after his One-Five Years Term as President making a Resounding Mark of Legacy in African Politics.
Again in 2004 General Elections ANC won with a Landslide and President Thabo Mbeki was Appointed for a Second Term as President. On June 2005 President Thabo Mbeki sacked his Deputy Jacob Zuma amid Corruption Charges pressed against Zuma and replaced him with Madam Mlambo Ngcuka. On September 2006 Corruption Charges against Zuma were dropped.
On December 2007 Jacob Zuma was elected the Chair of the Ruling ANC Party reviving his chances of Succeeding President Thabo Mbeki. Fresh Corruption Charges were preferred against him that very Year but they were later dismissed on September 2008.
Still on September 2008 President Thabo Mbeki bowed to Pressure from his Party to resign and stepped down. This was upon some serious allegations of him having misused State Power against his first Deputy Jacob Zuma in his Corruption Cases.
ANC Deputy Party Leader Kgalema Motlanthe was chosen by Parliament as the Interim President ahead of the April 2009 General Elections.
The ANC won the April 2009 General Elections and on May 2009 Jacob Zuma was Appointed to be the New President by the Parliament.
On November 2011 ANC Suspended its Influential Youth Wing Leader Julius Malema for bringing dishonor to the Party through his Controversial Leftist Stands in Politics and Governance. Julius Malema and his like-minded allies formed a Movement and on July 2013 formed a Party for their Movement and called it ‘Economic Freedom Fighters’ a now Popular Party especially among the Youths actually the Third Largest in terms of Representation in both Houses of South Africa’s Parliament.
The Public Anti-Corruption Ombudsman on March 2013 brought a highly charged Accusation against President Jacob Zuma for $20 Million Upgrade of his Private Residence using Public Money.
December 2013 South Africa’s First Black President, Anti-Apartheid Champion and an Esteemed Global Statesman acclaimed as the ‘Father of the Nation’ Nelson Mandela died at the Age of 95.
Again ANC won the 2014 General Elections and President Zuma got Re-Appointed for a Second Term. Two Years into his Second Term South Africa’s Supreme Court indicts President Zuma for Violating the Constitution in the Controversial $20 Million Upgrade of his Private Residence using Public Money.
On February 2018, President Zuma who by then was set to face his 9th Vote of No Confidence for his Numerous Charges of Corruption among other damning Scandals resigned under intense Pressure from his Ruling Party.
Cyril Ramaphosa who is 67 Years old (Lawyer/Business Mogul) who had been elected the Chair of the ruling ANC on December 2017 was hence Appointed by the Parliament to replace Jacob Zuma as the 4th-President of Post-Apartheid South Africa on February 2018, a Position he holds up to Date when South Africa is heading to its 6th General Elections to elect a New National Parliament that shall in turn Appoint a New President.
The Anti-Apartheid Liberation Party ANC which is the Largest Party has been Ruling South Africa since the Fall of Apartheid Regime in 1994 to Date but on this Particular Election of May 8,2019 it will be facing other 48 Parties led by its Main Challengers the Democratic Alliance Party currently headed by 39 Years old Mmusi Maimane and the Economic Freedom Fighters Party headed by 38 Years old Julius Malema who was at one time ANC’s Youth Wing Leader.There are 26.7 Million Registered Voters in this Election.
The May 8,2019 Election was Won by the ANC with 57.5% this being its worst Performance since 1994 when it came to Power;Its representation in Parliament also came down from 249 Members to 231.Julius Malema’s EFF recorded the best Performance with its Parliament representation increasing from 25 to 43 Members.This Election also recorded one of the Poorest Voter Turnout and geneal Voter Apathy. Having the Majority in Parliament,ANC President Cyril Ramaphosa was consequently Appointed the President of South Africa and took a New Oath of Office on May 25,2019 for a New Term until 2024 when the next General Elections will be held.
Quick Facts about South Africa:
Its Current Population Stands at 57 Million People.Its Population is still largely viewed in terms of Races even after the end of the Apartheid Rule 25 Years ago;the Native Black South Africans are the Majority at 80% with the White,Coloured,Asian and Indian South Africans sharing 20% of the Total Population.
It’s the World’s Largest Producer of Platinum accounting for 70% of the World’s Platinum and among the World’s Largest Producer of Coal.
It’s Africa’s Largest Producer of Gold with its Annual Production currently at 144 Tons
It’s Africa’s Second Largest Economy with a GDP of $349.299 Billion.
South Africa has 3 Capital Cities divided for the 3 Arms of Government;Pretoria is Home to the Executive,Cape Town for the Legislature and Bloemfontein for the Government’s Judiciary.The Country has 9 Provinces
The Country’s Currency is called South African Rand
The Country is Predominantly Christian with over 80% of its Population being Christians
South Africa has 11 Official Languages;Isizulu and Isixhosa being the Two Most Spoken Languages.English is also used as an Official Language mainly for State Communication.
South Africa made history in 2010 for being the First African Country to host the Celebrated and Most Famous Sport Tournament in the World;the 2010 Football (FIFA)World Cup Tournament.
South Africa is according to World Bank Report the Country with the Worst Income Inequality thus the Most Unequal Country in the World where 1% of its Total Population actually own 70% of the Country’s Total Wealth.South Africa is also the Country with the Highest Unemployment Rate (28.33%)in Africa and the Second in the World according to Global Economy Report.