KENYA; CRADLE OF MANKIND; ONE OF AFRICA’S MOST ROBUST DEMOCRACY; LARGEST ECONOMY IN EAST & CENTRAL AFRICA GOES TO A HIGH-STAKES TRANSITION ELECTION

August 9,2022 Presidential Candidates and their Running Mates: A-Raila Odinga/Martha Karua, B-William Ruto/Rigathi Gachagua, C-George Wajackoyah/Justina Wamae, D-David Mwaure/Ruth Mutua.
  • KENYA;an East African Nation TODAY Home to 56.3 Million People is believed to have been Home to the OLDEST HUMAN SPECIES ON EARTH or the CRADLE OF HUMANITY after the Discovery of the Oldest Stone Tools ever at Lomekwi in Turkana County of Kenya.These Stone Tools discovered between 2011 to 2014 at the Shores of Lake Turkana Date to 3.3 MILLION YEARS AGO. These Tools that include Anvils, Hammers, Cores and Sharp-edged Flakes and other Stone Tools are in Fact 700,000 Years OLDER than any such Tools/Artefacts discovered before according to Paleoanthropologists. These Tools actually Pre-date the Oldest known Genus Homo or the Human Genus which Dates to 2.8 Million Years ago.

Modern History Timeline:

Colonialism in Kenya

  • 1888-having invaded and occupied the Territory that is Today Kenya; British Colonialists Ruled Kenya, Uganda and Somalia through a Commercial Company known as IBEAC-Imperial British East Africa that had a Royal Charter. In 1889;Somalia fell under Italian Colonial Rule. In 1893;Unable to control the Vast Territory and with growing Resistance from Local Communities; IBEAC handed over the remaining Territory to the British Government which then divided it into the Uganda Protectorate in 1894 and the East African Protectorate-British East Africa or Modern Day Kenya in 1895.Fast-forward to 1920;Kenya officially became a Britain Colony on June 1920.
  • Kenyans Resistance to British Colonial Rule started as early as 1890 when an Agikuyu Chief Waiyaki wa Hinga organized a Protest that led to the burning down of a Fort Building belonging to a British Colonial Administrator Frederick Lugard.It grew to a Full-fledged Resistance led by Gallant Men and Women like Mukite wa Nameme leading Abukusu Resistance in 1895, Koitalel Arap Samoei leading Nandi Resistance in 1896, Mekatilili wa Menza,Syotune wa Kathuke;Bold Women who led Agiriama and Akamba Resistance to British Colonial Rule in 1913.
  • The Agikuyu-led fierce Mau Mau Land and Freedom Revolt led by Valiant Warriors like Field Marshall Dedan Kimathi,Muthoni Kirima,Musa Muariama,Baimungi Marete,Waruhiu Itote and many Others from 1951 to 1960 decisively placed Kenya on the Road to Independence. This was the Bloodiest Resistance to British Colonial Rule; Over 90,000 Kenyan People were Killed in this 9 Years Struggle for Freedom,160,000 others were arrested, tortured and detained according to KHRC.
  • On May 1960; Nationalists led by James Gichuru,Tom Mboya and Oginga Odinga formed KANU; the Party that formed the first Government in Independent Kenya on June 1,1963 under its Leader then-Jomo Kenyatta as Prime Minister.On December 12,1963;Kenya became a Republic with Jomo Kenyatta as the first President and Jaramogi Oginga Odinga as the first Vice President.

        Post-Colonial Kenya;1963-2002

  • President Jomo Kenyatta ruled Kenya from June 1963 until August 22,1978 when he Died from Heart Attack. Under his 15 Years Rule,Kenya’s Economy grew from $926 Million in 1963 to $ 5 Billion in 1978.The Country’s Population grew from 9 Million People in 1963 to 15 Million in 1978.The Country’s GDP Per Capita grew from $104 in 1963 to $349 in 1978.In 1978 after 15 Years of President Jomo Kenyatta; Adult Literacy Rate was at 36% from 20% in 1963;35% of Kenyan Men and 70% of Kenyan Women aged 15 Years and above were Illiterate. Life Expectancy improved from 48 Years in 1963 to 56 Years in 1978. Kenyatta’s Vice President then-Daniel Toroitich Arap Moi was Sworn in as Acting President and later on October 1978 as Kenya’s Second President after being Unopposed Presidential Candidate on November 1978 Presidential Election.
  • President Daniel Arap Moi held Power for 24 Years until December 2002.Under President Moi,Kenya’s Economy grew from $ 5 Billion to $ 13 Billion. The Population doubled from 15 Million People in 1978 to 33 Million People in 2002.The Country’s GDP Per Capita had slowly risen from $349 in 1978 to $390 when President Moi left Office in 2002.On May 1990 when the first ‘United Nations Development Program’-UNDP released the first Global ‘Human Development Index’-HDI Report; Kenya was in the ‘Low Income-Low Human Development’ Category of Nations. In 2002; Adult Literacy Rate had risen to a high of 82% from 36% in 1978.Life Expectancy decreased from 56 Years in 1978 to 51 Years in 2002. KANU’s Candidate in the December 2002 Election-a Youthful 41 Years old Uhuru Kenyatta-President Jomo Kenyatta’s Son lost to a 71 Years old Mwai Kibaki who through NARC Coalition Won with a Landslide 62%;Uhuru got 31% of the Votes. On December 2002;President Moi handed over Power to his former Vice President-Mwai Kibaki ending KANU’s 39 Years in Power. President Moi Died on February 4,2020 at the Age of 95.

         Kenya in the 21st Century;2002-2022

  • Regarded as the only Kenyan President who managed to balance Economic Growth with Economic Development; President Mwai Kibaki’s 10 Years;2-5 Years Terms-2003-2013 were characterized by Robust Infrastructural Development, Economic Growth and Development, Democracy and Constitutional Development. President Kibaki will be remembered for overseeing Kenya’s highest Rate of Economic Growth;as an esteemed Economist,President Kibaki steered Kenya’s Economy growth from a sluggish growth of 0.2% in December 2002 when he took Power to an impressive 7.1% in early 2007 or 10% after Rebasing. Under President Mwai Kibaki; Kenya’s Economy grew from $13 Billion to $54 Billion making it Africa’s 9th Largest Economy when he left Office in 2013. The Country’s GDP Per Capita rose from a low of $390 when he took Office to an impressive high of $1,210 when he left Office; this placed Kenya on a Trajectory towards Low-Middle Income Country.The Country’s Adult Literacy Rate rose to a high of 88% in 2013 after President Kibaki’s Free Primary Education in 2003.Life Expectancy rose from a low of 51 Years when President Moi left Office to a high of 63 Years when President Kibaki left Office.In Terms of Human Development;Kenya was still ranked as a “Low Human Development” Country in 2013 UNDP-HDI Report when Kibaki left Office;it ranked at Position 145 out of 186 World Countries assessed. On August 2010; President Kibaki’s Grand Coalition Government delivered one of the Most Progressive and Democratic Constitution in the World which is the Supreme Law in Kenya Today. President Kibaki’s Government will also be remembered for preparing and launching Kenya’s Vision 2030 on June 2008;a Long-term Development Blue-print that has largely been guiding Kenya’s State Development Programs ever since.The Development Blueprint aims at transforming Kenya into a globally Competitive, Prosperous industrializing Middle income Nation and provide all its Citizens with high quality Life in a Secure Environment by 2030. President Kibaki Died on April 21,2022 at the Age of 91.
The 4 Presidents Kenya has had since Independence: 1963-2022 Chronologically

                President Uhuru Kenyatta; Outgoing President of Kenya

  • Kenya’s 4th President;Uhuru Muigai Kenyatta-the Son of Kenya’s First President took Office on March 2013 and is set to leave Office after the August 9th 2022 Presidential Election, effectively ending his 2;5 Years Terms as President. President Uhuru Kenyatta will be remembered for his massive and expensive Infrastructural Projects and steady expansion of Kenya’s Economy, Fundamental Freedoms and Democracy.
  •  President Uhuru Kenyatta’s Key Achievements include Big Infrastructural Projects like the Standard Gauge Railway-Kenya’s Most expensive Infrastructural Project, Nairobi Expressway-Africa’s longest Expressway, Reviving of the Old Meter Gauge Railway, Ship building and Repair Yards and Ports-New Port of Lamu, Second Container Terminal at the Port of Mombasa and Refurbishing of Kisumu Port. Clean Energy-Electricity Connection, Dams-Thiba,Kariminu,Thwake etc, Clean Water and Sanitation, Hospitals like the KU National Teaching,Referral and Research Hospital among other complete and ongoing Projects make President Uhuru Kenyatta’s Conspicuous Infrastructural Legacy.
  • President Uhuru will also be remembered for overseeing Devolution of Power to enhance equitable sharing of Resources and Development across Kenya’s 47 County Governments. Investment in Technical and Vocational Education Training Institutes, Introduction of a New Competency Based Curriculum of Education in Kenya as well Reforms and Investments that have seen Kenya achieve 100% Transition from Primary to Secondary School and 1:1 Child to Book Ratio is also part of President Uhuru Kenyatta’s Key Achievements. Kenya’s Internet Penetration has grown from 31% when he took Office in 2013 to 93% in 2022.Transition from Analogue to Digital Broadcasting in 2015 has greatly opened up Kenya’s Mainstream Media Space.
  • His Administration has built nearly 11,000 New Kilometers of Road Network which according to Records is more than all Roads built in Kenya between 1920 when Kenya officially became a British Colony to 2013 when he took Office as the 4th President of Kenya. Under his Administration; Kenya’s Economy has grown from $ 5 Trillion in 2013 to over $ 12 Trillion Today making it the 6th Biggest Economy in Africa.
  • Under President Uhuru Kenyatta; Kenya on September 2014 rose from a Low income to a Low Middle Income Economy. Kenya’s GDP Per Capita has almost doubled from $1,200 in 2013 to 2,100 in 2022.Life Expectancy has also increased from 63 Years in 2013 to 67 Years Today. In the most recent UNDP-Human Development Report of 2021; Kenya has risen to “Medium Human Development” Category; It currently ranks at Position 142 out of 189 Countries assessed.
  • President Uhuru Kenyatta’s Government will also be remembered for its Investment in Clean Renewable Energy.Currently,Renewable Energy in Kenya accounts for over 70% of the Country’s installed Power generation Capacity.Nearly 90% of the Electricity in use across Kenya is from Clean Sources.
  • President Uhuru Kenyatta’s Administration is however being criticized for what Kenyans term as grand Embezzlement and Corruption mainly through Overpriced Projects and Excessive borrowing that has seen Kenya’s Debt Portfolio increase from $ 1.8 Trillion in 2013 to over $ 8 Trillion Today. On March 2016; Kenya’s Auditor General then-Philip Kinisu said Kenya loses a Third of its Annual Budget or Ksh.600+ Billion to Corruption every Year. Kenya’s immediate former Auditor General-Edward Ouko disputed up to Ksh.1 Trillion of Public Fund that was either Misappropriated or Stolen between 2014 to 2019. “We cannot Lie, the Devil of Corruption is still Alive and Well here in Kenya”-President Uhuru Kenyatta on June 1,2022. On the 2022’Transparency International Corruption Perception Index’ Report that ranks 180 World Countries by their Perceived Levels of Public Sector Corruption; Kenya is ranked at Position 128 out of 180 Countries with a Score of 30/100.The Ranking is given on a Scale or Score of 0-100; Score 0-Totally Corrupt National Public Sector to 100-Coruption Free National Public Sector.

KENYA DECIDES 2022; August 9,2022 Presidential Election

  • This will be Kenya’s 7th Multi-Party Democracy Presidential Election to elect Kenya’s 5th President. The First Multi-Party Elections were held in December 1992 after Kenya’s Second Liberation Uprising that forced President Moi to forego his One Party Autocracy on December 1991.Constitutionally,Kenya Today has a Presidential System of Governance/Democracy where a directly/popularly elected President is the Head of State and Government.
  • A Total of 22.1 Million Kenyans are registered to Vote in this Election across 46,232 Polling Stations spread out across Kenya’s 47 Counties. Kenyans are expected to Vote in a New President, 290 Members of Parliament, 47 Governors, Senators and Women Representatives for each of Kenya’s 47 Counties and some 1,450 Members of County Assembly from each of 1,450 Administrative Wards in Kenya.
  • The Presidential Election had attracted a Total of 58 Aspirants but Only 4 fulfilled the Stringent and Demanding Requirements set by Kenya’s Constitutional Laws and the ‘Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission’-IEBC.  To be Declared Winner in Kenya’s Presidential Election;One Must get 50%+1 Votes or more than HALF of all Votes Cast in the Presidential Election and at least 25% of Votes Cast in HALF of the 47 Counties or in 24 out of 47 Counties.
  • The 4 Presidential Candidates in this Election are Kenya’s former Prime Minister-77 Years old Raila Odinga with his Azimio La Umoja CoalitionA Kenya’s Deputy President since 2013 To-date-55 Years old William Ruto with his Kenya Kwanza Coalition-B, Roots Party Candidate-62 Years old George Wajackoyah-C and Agano Party Candidate-65 Years old David Mwaure-D.
  • FOCUS is however on 2 Front-Runners; Former Prime Minister Raila Amolo Odinga who is making his 5TH Attempt to become Kenya’s President and one of his Stalwarts in the Violently disputed 2007 Presidential Election now the Deputy President of Kenya-Dr.William Samoei Ruto. This is William Ruto’s First Presidential Bid where he is seeking to Succeed his Boss-President Uhuru Kenyatta who he fell out with when he-(Uhuru Kenyatta)-made a Peace Agreement-March 2018 Handshake with his Rival Raila Odinga after his Controversial Re-election on October 2017 Repeat Election. President Uhuru Kenyatta made a Decision to Support his Arch-rival in 2013 and 2017 Presidential Elections-Raila Odinga; he has been Campaigning for him since the early 2022.

2022 Presidential Election Promises and Key Concerns among Kenyans

  • Flanked by an esteemed Senior Counsel, Constitutional Justice Activist, former elected Member of Parliament,former Water,Justice and Constitutional Affairs Minister,NARC-Kenya Party Leader and 2013 Presidential Candidate; Martha Karua as the Running Mate; Raila Odinga’s Azimio La Umoja Manifesto is built around the following Key Pledges. National Industrialization and Manufacturing-One County One Product for Economic Revolution and Job Creation, Finacial Social Welfare Program to the most Needy Households,Women Empowerment,Universal Healthcare Program,Quality Basic Education for all Children, Clean affordable Water to all Households,Agriculture and Food Security,Digital  and Creative Economy,Blue Economy,Environment and Climate Change Mitigation and above all eradicate Corruption which he and her Running Mate have made Personal Commitment to root out by all Means. Raila Odinga who who alongside other Living and Dead Kenyan Patriots went through Hell to end President Moi’s One-Party Dictatorship in the late 80s to early 90s to deliver Kenya’s Second Liberation-Democracy and Social Freedom, has alongside his Running Mate-Iron Lady Martha Karua, promised to lead Kenya’s Third Liberation-Economic Liberation.
  • Flanked by his Running Mate; sitting Mathira MP and former District Administrator under Moi’s Regime- Rigathi Gachagua; William Ruto’s Kenya Kwanza has fashioned his Manifesto around a “Bottom-up” Employment creating Economic Model.His Key Pledges are built around Agriculture and Food Security, Micro,Small and Medium Enterprises Economy,Digital-Creative Economy,Service Economy,Housing and Settlement,Two-thirds Gender Rule Implementation,Universal Health Coverage and Environment.
  • The Main Concerns amongst Kenyans in this August 2022 Election are escalating Cost of Living, Food Insecurity-(despite being an Agriculture based Economy;Kenya is still a Net Food Importer.1 out of 3 Kenyans suffer from Chronic Food Insecurity and Poor Nutrition.3 in every 10 Kenyans do not meet Dietary Requirements to sustain a Healthy and Productive Life. In the most recent-2021 Global Hunger Index-GHI,Kenya is ranked at Position 87 out of 116 Countries with sufficient Data to calculate the 2021 GHI Scores.With a GHI score of 23.0;Kenya’s Level of Hunger is classified as Serious.), unprofitable Cash Crops Farming, Cronyism and escalating Unemployment, OverTaxation and high Cost of doing Business, Neglect of the Innovative and Creative Capacity/Economy, incessant Government Corruption and Public Funds Embezzlement with Impunity, Access to Quality and Affordable Healthcare-(only21% of Kenyans are covered by any Health Insurance-National NHIF taking 20% of the 21% as of 2022-The Ratio of Doctor to Patients in Kenya currently stands at 1 Doctor for 17,000 Kenyans which is way below the World Health Organization-W.H.O Standard of 1 Doctor for 1000 People.), Mental Healthcare, the New Basic Education CBC Curriculum, Cost and Quality of higher Education, Soaring National Debt, lacking National Values, Ethics and Morality, Unaccountable Public Leadership, Administration and Management among other Issues.

KENYA-Key Facts

  • Kenya is the World’s Home of Athletics Champions; Home to the World’s Greatest Marathoner of all Time-Eliud Kipchoge, Africa’s Fastest Man-Ferdinand Omanyala among other Past and Current 30 World Record Holders in different Field and Track Events. David Rudisha,Beatrice Chepkoech,Brigid Kosgei,the late Agnes Tirop,David Komen,Tegla Loroupe,Ruth Chepng’etich,Peres Jepchirchir,Hellen Obiri,Faith Kipyegon are among many other Terrific Kenyan Athletes. Kenyan Women Athletes are in the Guinness World Record for ‘Most Team Wins at the IAAF World Cross Country Championships’ with 7 Victories.
  • Despite being a relatively developed Low Middle income Country that has the largest Economy in Central and East Africa; Poverty is still a Significant Issue in Kenya Today with 34% of Kenyans or over 18.6 Million People still living below the Poverty Line or living with under $1.90 per Person a Day.
  • Kenya has the Most Expensive Elections in Africa and second Most Expensive Elections in the World.This particular 2022 General Election will Cost Kenyans Ksh.44.5 Billion;Over $17 or Ksh.2,027 will be spent on Each of the 22,120,458 Registered Voters.
  • On the most recent ‘Transparency International Corruption Perception Index’ Report that ranks 180 World Countries by their Perceived Levels of Public Sector Corruption;Kenya is ranked at Position 128 out of 180 Countries with a Score of 30/100.The Ranking is given on a Scale or Score of 0-100;Score 0-Totally Corrupt National Public Sector to 100-Coruption Free National Public Sector.
  • Kenya is largely an Agricultural Country. Agriculture is the biggest Contributor making 32% of Kenya’s GDP;It’s also the biggest Employey.Kenya is among the Top Exporters of Tea, Macadamia Nuts, Coffee, Flowers, Avocados, Fruits and Vegetables or Horticultural Produce.Kenya is Africa’s biggest Producer and Exporter of Avocados and Tea.It’s the Second biggest Producer and Exporter of Macadamia Nuts and 5th biggest Producer and Exporter of Coffee in Africa.
  • Kenya has Significant but largely Untapped Deposits of Titanium,Copper,Gold,Oil,Gemstones,Niobium,Manganese among other Rare Earth Minerals.
  • Kenya is leading in harnessing Clean and Renewable Energy as the World rushes to phase out World Polluting and Global Warming Dirty Energy;the Largest Geothermal,Wind and Biogas Power Plants in Africa are all found in Kenya.
  • Located astride the Equator along the Coast of East Africa;Kenya is a Top Tourist Destination.Kenya has 7 UNESCO World Heritage Sites-Second highest UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Africa.These include Thimlich Ohinga Archaeological Site,Fort Jesus,Kenya Lake System,Mijikenda Kaya Forests,Lamu Old Town,Mount Kenya Forest National Park and Lake Turkana National Park-Lake Turkana is the World’s Largest Desert Lake. Sandy Beaches like Diani,Watamu,Chale,Vipingo,Bamburi,Lamu,Gazi,Kikambala,Nyali,Wasini,Shanzu etc along the Indian Ocean are leading Tourist Destinations. With 23 Terrestrial National Parks and 28 Terrestrial National Reserves that include One the 7 Wonders of the World; Maasai Mara Wildlife Reserve famous for the Wildebeest Migration; Kenya is a World leading Tourist Destination.
  • On the latest Human Capital Index which is a Measure of Human Capital that a Child born Today in Kenya can expect to attain by their 18th Birthday in Terms of Education and Health Standards in their Country expressed in a Scale of (0-1). Kenya scored 0.5;the Second highest Score amongst 46 African Countries in 174 World Countries assessed by World Bank in the 2020 Report. Mauritius and Seychelles had the highest Score in Africa at 0.6 while Singapore had the highest Score in the World at 0.9.
  • In the most recent UNDP ‘Human Development Index’; Kenya is ranked among “Medium Human Development” Category of Nations at Position 152 out of 191 World Nations and Number 116 out of 168 World Nations on the ‘Social Progress Index’.The 2 Indexes take Account of Key Dimensions of Human Development that is;Healthy Life,being Knowledgeable-Education, a Decent Standard of Living-access to basic Human Needs,Safety,Personal Freedom and Rights,Foundations of Well-being and Opportunities for Progress among many other Indicators of Social and Human Development/Progress.
  • On the most recent ‘Reporters without Borders- Press Freedom Index’ Report that ranks 180 World Countries by the Level of Press Freedom enjoyed by Journalists and the Media;Kenya is ranked at Position 69 out of 180 Countries with a Score of 65/100.The Rankings is based on a 0-100 Score;100 being the Best Possible Score-highest possible Level of Press Freedom and 0 the Worst.
  • Despite being among Africa’s Top 10 Countries with the highest Literacy Rate at Position 8 with 82% Adult Literacy Rate; Kenya’s 82% Literacy Rate is still below the Global Average Literacy Rate which currently stands at 86%.
  • Nairobi is the Capital City of Kenya;It’s Home to over 5 Million People. Lake City of Nakuru, Lake City of Kisumu and Coastal City of Mombasa are the other 3 Kenyan Cities.
  • Kenya’s National Language is Kiswahili; English and Kiswahili are the Official Languages of Kenya.
  • Although Constitutionally Kenya is a Secular State; Majority of Kenyans are Christians-86% followed by Muslims at 11%. There are also Hindus,Sikhs,Bahai and many other Traditional and Contemporary Faiths.
  • Kenya Shilling Ksh/KES Is Kenya’s Official Currency.

August 9,2022 Presidential Election Results

On August 15,2022: 55 Years old William Samoei Ruto made History by Winning a Popular, Democratic Presidential Election in Kenya in his First Bid with 7,176,141 Votes or 50%.His former Ally but Arch-Rival in the August 9,2022 Presidential Election;77 Years Old Former PM Raila Odinga came Second with 6,942,930 Votes or 49% in his 5th Unsuccessful Bid to become Kenya’s President. William Ruto also made History after Overcoming many Hurdles in his Presidential Bid to become the First Deputy President to immediately Succeed his Boss through a Multi-Party Democracy Presidential Popular Vote in Kenya. Raila Odinga’s Azimio la Umoja Coalition Won a Majority of Seats in Kenya’s National Assembly with 171 elected MPs against William Ruto’s Kenya Kwanza Coalition that got 156 elected Mps.In the Senate;William Ruto’s Coalition got 24 elected Senators against Raila Odinga’s Coalition 23 Senators. Only 14.3 Million Kenyans out of 22.1 Million Kenyans registered to Vote turned out to Vote.

RT.Hon Raila Odinga and 6 Others filed Petitions at Kenya’s Supreme Court to dispute William Ruto’s Victory.In a historic Unanimous Ruling by 7 Judges;the 7 Petitions which had been consolidated into 1-Nine Issues Petition were dismissed in Totality on September 5,2022 and William Ruto’s Win Validated. Raila Odinga welcomed the Ruling but disagreed with it. “We have always stood for the Rule of Law and the Constitution.In this Regard;We Respect the Opinion of the Court although we Vehemently Disagree with their Decision Today.Our Lawyers proffered irrefutable Evidence and the Facts were on our Side.This Judgement is by No Mean the End of our Movement;In fact it inspires us to Redouble our Efforts to transform this Country into a Prosperous Democracy where each and every Kenyan can find their full Belonging.”-Excerpt from Raila Odinga’s Statement after Supreme Court Ruling.

On September 13,2022; William Ruto was Sworn in as Kenya’s 5th President alongside his Deputy Rigathi Gachagua in a lively Ceremony that was graced by 18 African Heads of States/Government, Dignitaries from all over the World and over 60,000 Kenyans who filled up the Kasarani Stadium in Nairobi.

(PHOTOS/IMAGE-COURTESY)

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